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Avodah Zarah 6

AVODAH ZARAH 6 - l'Iluy Nishmas Harav Ze'ev Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, who passed away on 14 Adar 5760, a person of "Sheleimus" in every way. Dedicated in honor of his Yahrzeit by his nephew and Talmid, Mr. Eli Rosengarten of Zurich.

1) [line 2] "ITACH" - "... with you" (Bereishis 6:19) - This word teaches that the animals that Noach was to bring into the ark with him were to be similar to him -- i.e. fully healthy animals.

2) [line 9] L'TZAVSA B'ALMA - just to have company
3) [line 10] SARIS - a castrated (impotent) animal
4) [line 17] YOM RISHON L'DIVREI REBBI YISHMAEL L'OLAM ASUR - [because of the idolatrous festival celebrated every week on] the first day (i.e. Sunday), it is *always* prohibited [to do business with idolaters], according to the view of Rebbi Yishmael. Since Rebbi Yishmael maintains that the prohibition to do business with an idolater applies three days before and three days after the festival, if idolaters celebrate a day each week as a festival, then it is always prohibited to deal with them. (According to old manuscripts, the Girsa is "Yom Notzri" instead of "Yom Rishon," referring to the day each week that the Nazarene commanded to treat as a festival.)

5a) [line 23] KALANDA - (L. Kalendae) the eight-day festival celebrated by idolaters after the winter solstice, ending on January 1
b) [line 23] SATRONIYA - (L. Saturnalia) the eight-day festival celebrated by idolaters beginning on December 17 until December 24. The Gemara later (8a) explains the source for these two festivals: As the first winter solstice in the history of the world approached, Adam ha'Rishon saw that the days were getting noticeably shorter, and the nights longer. He became concerned that, as a punishment for his sin, HaSh-m was taking away the light from the world and was returning the world to nothingness. He spent eight days in fasting and prayer. When the winter solstice passed, he saw the days getting longer again, and he celebrated for eight days. The following year, he observed both sets of eight days as a festival to give thanks to HaSh-m. This practice continued with Adam's descendants, until, generations later, they corrupted the original intent of the festival and celebrated those days as a festival to their idols.
c) [line 23] KERATISIM - an ancient Roman festival celebrating the final Roman conquest of the Greek empire

6a) [line 24] SHEMONAH YAMIM ACHAR TEKUFAH - eight days after the [winter] solstice
b) [line 25] SHEMONAH YAMIM LIFNEI TEKUFAH - eight days before the [winter] solstice

7) [line 26] "ACHOR VA'KEDEM TZARTANI, [VA'TASHES ALAI KAPECHA.]" - "Back and front You formed me, [You laid Your hand upon me.]" (Tehilim 139:5) - The Gemara gives this verse as a way to remember that the *first* festival mentioned in the Mishnah (8a), "Kalanda," corresponds to the first word in this verse and refers to the eight days *after* ("Achor") the solstice, while the *second* festival, "Satroniya," corresponds to the second word in the verse and refers to the eight days *before* ("va'Kedem") the solstice.

8) [line 35] HARVACHAH - profit, abundance
9) [line 35] "V'LIFNEI IVER LO SITEN MICHSHOL." - "Do not place a stumbling block before the blind." (Vayikra 19:14) - We learn from this verse that it is forbidden to cause another person to sin by giving him bad advice or by placing before him the opportunity to sin. (Some Rishonim explain that this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan (a Rabbinic prohibition) and is not implicit in the verse.)


10) [line 1] YOSHIT - extend [one's hand and give]

11) [line 1] KOS SHEL YAYIN L'NAZIR - a cup of wine to a Nazir (NAZIR)
If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand. See Background to Shevuos 22:3.

12) [line 2] EVER MIN HA'CHAI LI'VENEI NOACH - [giving] a limb from a live animal to Benei Noach (EVER MIN HA'CHAI)
(a) Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a *limb* that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to *flesh* detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).
(b) The prohibition for Benei Yisrael to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). See Background to Sanhedrin 56:27.
(c) The prohibition for Benei Noach to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel" - "... from all of the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam may eat from all of the trees, but he may not eat Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan. Other sages learn the prohibition from different verses (as the Gemara there in Sanhedrin teaches). This is one of the Seven Mitzvos of Benei Noach (see Background to Sanhedrin 56:25).

13) [line 5] D'KAI BI'TREI EVREI D'NAHARA - when they are standing on two different sides of a river

14) [line 7] NASA V'NASAN - [if he already] did business [with an idolater on a day on which it is prohibited to do so]

15a) [line 16] DAVAR HA'MISKAYEIM - an object that lasts (a non-perishable object)
b) [line 17] DAVAR SHE'EINO MISKAYEIM - an object that does not last (a perishable object)

16) [line 21] MINA'AH - heretic
17) [line 21] D'SHADAR - who sent
18) [line 21] DINERA KEISARNA'AH - a [new] Caesarian coin (which was newly minted, and which replaced the old coin)

19) [line 24] HAVYAH LEI EIVAH - he will have enmity [towards me, and the Jews, if I do not accept his gift]

20) [line 26] KEL'ACHAR YAD - in an abnormal manner (lit. with the back of his hand), [making it appear as though he did not discard the coin on purpose but rather it fell accidentally]

21) [line 46] LO SASUD B'MO'ED - she may not smear a paste of lime or plaster on her face to remove the hair during Chol ha'Mo'ed

22) [line 46] NIVUL - [because it is a] disgrace, ugliness (since the paste defaces her and is a cause of sorrow, and one must be happy during the festival)

23) [line 47] L'KAFLO - to peel it off
24) [line 47] TOFALTO - she may paste it [onto her face]
25) [line 47] METZIRAH - it causes her distress

(a) One who lends money to a Nochri with a deed of debt may not collect the loan at the time of their festivals (i.e. from three days before the festival), because it will cause the Nochri to give thanks to his idols that he no longer has the obligation to pay the debt (since there is no way that he can deny the debt when the lender is holding a Shtar).
(b) One who lends money to a Nochri without a Shtar may collect the loan at the time of their festivals, because the Nochri does not experience great joy at no longer having to pay the debt, since he could have denied it (for there is no Shtar).

27) [line 50] YASIV RAV YOSEF ACHOREI D'REBBI ABA V'YASIV REBBI ABA KAMEI D'RAV HUNA - Rav Yosef was sitting behind Rebbi Aba, and Rebbi Aba was sitting in front of [and facing] Rav Huna [their teacher]

28) [last line] HA'NOSEN TZEMER L'TZABA LITZBO'A LO ADOM V'TZAV'O SHACHOR - a person gave his wool to a professional dyer to dye it red for him, and he dyed it black

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