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Avodah Zarah 14

1) [line 1] TURNISA - (a) (O.F. pin) pine (RASHI); (b) sulfur (TOSFOS DH Turnisa, RASHI to Shabbos 90a DH Kol)

2) [line 1] HOSIFU ALEIHEN... (SHEVI'IS)
See Background to Avodah Zarah 10:7b.

3a) [line 2] ALACHSIN - a type of nut
b) [line 2] MUCHSASIN - a type of inferior fig

4) [line 5] KOL SHE'YESH LO IKAR - all plants and trees that have a main root
5) [line 7] PEIREI D'ARZA - (O.F. glant) acorns (of an oak tree)
6) [line 9] TE'EINEI CHIVAR'ASA - a species of inferior white figs, the trees of which produce fruits over a 3-year period

7) [line 13] LEVONAH ZAKAH - frankincense or oliban (see Background to 13:41) (the word Zakah refers to the species, and does not mean "pure" -- RASHI)

8) [line 13] CHAVILAH - a bundle

9) [line 15] SHELOSHAH MANIN - the weight of three Maneh Tzuri, the denominations of coins used in Tzor (Tyre; this denomination was worth eight times more than the provincial coinage, Kesef Medinah). A Maneh is equivalent to 25 Sela'im, or 100 Zuz.

10) [line 17] A'LIFNEI MIFKADINAN; A'LIFNEI D'LIFNEI LO MIFKADINAN - a person is commanded not to transgress the prohibition of "Lifnei Iver," referring to the verse "v'Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol." - "Do not place a stumbling block before the blind." (Vayikra 19:14). We learn from this verse that it is forbidden to cause another person to sin by giving him bad advice or by placing before him the opportunity to sin. (Some Rishonim explain that this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan (a Rabbinic prohibition) and is not implicit in the verse.) However, this prohibition only applies to a direct cause to sin; a person who causes another to sin in an indirect manner ("Lifnei d'Lifnei") does not transgress this prohibition.

11) [line 20] "TARNEGOL L'MI?" MUTAR LIMKOR LO TARNEGOL LAVAN - if a Nochri announces in the marketplace, "Who has a rooster to sell," it is permitted to sell him a white rooster

12) [line 39] TAVZIG - (O.F. comparage) a friendly feast (in which it is not assumed that the participants will sacrifice to Avodah Zarah)

13) [line 41] CHITEI CHIVARTA - "white," i.e. pale yellow wheat


14) [line 8] MEIVAK HU D'AVIK - he is extremely attached
15) [line 10] D'LEISVU LI - that they should give (i.e. sell) it to me

16) [line 20] TEIKU
The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:

1. It is sealed in its container ("Tik") (ARUCH, Erech Tik).
2. Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand" (MUSAF HA'ARUCH).
3. Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions" (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos).
17) [line 21] GEMIREI - we have a tradition
18) [line 29] KISBHA - (a) a type of date; (b) a shrub that has deep and straight roots, planted in hedges to mark boundaries; prob. Cistus

19) [line 31] KURYATEI - a species of date
20) [line 35] KA MECHAVU LACH - they will show them to you

21a) [line 36] BEHEMAH DAKAH - small domesticated (farm) animals (such as sheep and goats)
b) [line 38] BEHEMAH GASAH - large, domesticated (farm) animals (such as cows, donkeys and horses)

(a) The Chachamim decreed not to sell a beast of burden to a Nochri. The reason for this prohibition is that if one could sell his animal to a Nochri, he may be tempted to lend or rent his animal to the Nochri, who would then work with a Jew's animal on Shabbos. This is prohibited, as the verse states, "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah...u'Vehemtecha." - "Do not do any work [on Shabbos]...[nor] your animals" (Shemos 20:10).
(b) Another reason given for this decree is that the Jew might start the sale a few minutes before the start of Shabbos and call to the loaded animal on Shabbos to show the Nochri how well it works. By doing so he would transgress the prohibition of Mechamer on Shabbos (Avodah Zarah 15a).
(c) The Chachamim did not apply this prohibition in the case of selling an old, male horse to a Nochri. Such a sale is not beneficial to the Nochri, and it is very uncommon, and the Chachamim did not enact decrees for unusual situations (RASHI).

23a) [line 39] AGALIM - calves
b) [line 39] SEYACHIM - young donkeys
24a) [line 39] SHELEMIN - whole, healthy
b) [line 39] SHEVURIN - broken, permanently injured such that it cannot work
25) [line 43] EIM MA'AMIDIN - one may not hitch to a hitching post
26) [line 44] PUNDEKA'OS - inns
27) [line 45] REVI'AH - bestiality
28) [last line] L'YACHED - to leave [the animal] alone [with the Nochri]

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