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Avodah Zarah 50

1) [line 5] SHALOSH D'DAMYAN L'MARKULIS - three [stones], that are similar to Markulis (since it is originally built from three stones)

2) [line 16] BI'TEFISAH LO - within its "grasp," i.e. within its four Amos
3a) [line 18] BI'TEFISAH ACHAS - in one domain, i.e. where there is no partition separating the stones and the Markulis Gadol
b) [line 18] BI'SHTEI TEFISOS - in two domains, i.e. where there is a partition separating the stones and the Markulis Gadol

4) [line 19] D'IKA GOVHAH BEINEI U'VEINEI - there is a mound (lit. height) that is between the stones and the Markulis Gadol

5) [line 20] AVNEI BEIS KULIS - the stones of the Avodah Zarah Markulis, the Roman God Mercury, identified with the Norse god Wodin, worshipped by throwing stones at the Markulis Gadol or removing stones from in front of it (Rambam ibid.). The Markulis Gadol was a structure of three stones, two stones next to each other and one on top, resting on the two lower ones

6) [line 23] BEI YANAI MALKA CHARUV - the palace of King Yanai was destroyed (for a brief history of King Yanai, see Background to Bava Kama 82:43b)

7) [line 24] UKIMU VEI MARKULIS - they set up a Markulis Gadol Avodah Zarah
8) [line 26] CHIFU VAHEN - they paved with them
9a) [line 26] DERACHIM - roads
b) [line 26] SETARTA'OS - streets
10) [line 27] D'FARSHEI - who kept away (they meticulously avoided stepping on the stones, for fear that they were prohibited like Avodah Zarah)

11) [line 27] BENAN SHEL KEDOSHIM - (a) "the son of holy people," i.e. his father and mother (TOSFOS DH Hachi Garsinan); (b) "the son of a holy person," i.e. his father (TOSFOS Pesachim 104a DH d'Lo)

12) [line 31] TZURSA D'ZUZA - the figure on a coin
13) [line 36] BE'INA K'EIN PENIM V'LEIKA - we need [(in order to prohibit as Tikroves Avodah Zarah) that an action] similar to [the Avodah] inside [of theBeis ha'Mikdash] and this (throwing stones) is not [similar]

14) [line 37] IKLA L'ASRIN - visited our town
15) [last line] (TARTIYA'OS) SARTIYA'OS / SETARTA'OS - streets


16) [line 2] SARTIYA'OS - streets
17) [line 2] LEIS NAGAR V'LO VAR NAGAR D'YIFREKINEI - there is no Torah Scholar (lit. carpenter -- based upon Melachim II 24:14, where the Torah Scholars are called "Charash" and "Masger." The Targum Onkelus (Shemos 35:35) of "Charash" is "Nagar") or student of the Torah Scholars who can resolve this [difficulty]

18a) [line 8] MASLI'IN - removing worms from trees
b) [line 8] MEZAHAMIN - covering wounds on trees (where the bark has peeled off) with fertilizer and wrapping them up until they heal

19) [line 8] SHEVI'IS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the land that makes improvements.
(c) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

20) [line 9] MO'ED
(a) It is prohibited to perform Melachos (creative acts) on Chol ha'Mo'ed, except in certain circumstances when the Chachamim were lenient. One of these circumstances is termed a Davar ha'Aved, when doing the Melachah will prevent a loss.
(b) The completion of certain projects cannot be delayed for a week without incurring a loss. When such a project involves a Melachah, it is forbidden to begin the project immediately before Yom Tov, such that it will become necessary to finish it on Chol ha'Mo'ed in order to prevent a loss. One who does so has been "Mechaven Melachto Ba'Mo'ed," intentionally arranging for his Melachah to be done on Chol ha'Mo'ed, and it is prohibited for him to finish his project on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

21) [line 9] EIN MEGAZMIN - it is prohibited to prune
22) [line 10] SACHIN SHEMEN L'GAZUM - it is permitted to apply oil to a place on a tree that was pruned [before Yom Tov]

23a) [line 19] UKUMEI ILANA - preserving the tree (preventing it from dying)
b) [line 20] AVRUYEI ILANA - (a) making the tree grow better and *healthier* (RASHI, RASHI to Sukah 44b, 2nd explanation); (b) *making holes* to soften the ground above the roots of trees (RASHI to Sukah 44b, 1st explanation)

24) [line 23] NETI'OS - the saplings
25) [line 23] KORCHIN OSAN - we may wrap them
26) [line 23] KOTMIN OSAN - we may apply ashes to them (to wounds on trees where the bark has peeled off)

27) [line 23] OSIN LAHEM BATIM - (a) we may build a one-Amah-high wall around them and fill it with earth (RASHI); (b) we may dig channels near their roots for water to collect (RABEINU CHANANEL)

(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. (See above, entry #19.)
(b) Chazal learn from the verse, "be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" (Shemos 34:21), that mid'Oraisa the prohibition against plowing the land during Shemitah starts one month before the actual Shemitah year ("Tosefes Shevi'is"). This applies both to fields and to orchards with grown trees. The Rabanan added to this prohibition and prohibited plowing a field from the Pesach before Shemitah and an orchard with grown trees from the Shavu'os before Shemitah.
(c) The above applies at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Nowadays, when Rebbi rules that Shemitah is mid'Rabanan, only one month is prohibited (TOSFOS DH u'Mashkin)

29) [line 27] KISHKUSHEI - hoeing

30a) [line 27] CHAD L'AVRUYEI ILANEI - one to make the tree grow better and *healthier*
b) [line 27] V'CHAD LI'SETUMEI PILEI - and one to (a) fill up cracks in the ground to cover exposed roots of trees so that the trees will not dry up (RASHI); (b) fill up cracks in trees (RABEINU CHANANEL, RASHI to Moed Katan 3a)

31) [line 32] PAGIN - unripe figs
32) [line 32] MENAKVIN U'MEFATMIN OSAN - it is permitted to pierce [the unripe figs] and fill the holes with oil

33) [line 35] PETUMEI PEIRA - fattening the fruits (which is prohibited)
34) [line 41] SHE'OVDIN OSAH B'MAKEL - that is served using a stick

Actions that are performed to Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash are prohibited mid'Oraisa to perform for any Avodah Zarah, whether these actions are the specific service of the Avodah Zarah or not (Sanhedrin 60b). They are Zevichah (slaughtering and offering a sacrifice), Haktarah (burning incense), Nisuch (pouring a libation) and Hishtachava'ah (bowing down).

36) [line 45] ZERIKAH MISHTABERES - an action that is similar to casting blood is prohibited if the item has the quality of blood, in that it can break up (naturally) into droplets

37) [line 46] SAFAS LAH TZO'AH- (a) he fed it (the idol) excrement (RASHI); (b) he dirtied it with excrement (TOSFOS)

38) [last line] NASACH LEFANEHA AVIT SHEL MEIMEI RAGLAYIM - he pored in front of it a chamber pot of urine

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