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Avodah Zarah 54

1a) [line 1] "B'SUMO KOL AVNEI MIZBE'ACH K'AVNEI GIR MENUPATZOS, LO YAKUMU ASHERIM V'CHAMANIM" - "[Therefore, with this the inquity of Yakov will be atoned...] When he makes all the stones of the altar like crushed hail stones, and Asheirah trees and sun-idols will no longer rise up." (Yeshayah 27:9)
b) [line 2] GIR - (O.F. gresle) hail

2) [line 6] NE'EVAD - [an object that becomes prohibited for use by being] worshipped

3a) [line 6] SHOGEG - unintentionally
b) [line 7] MEZID - intentionally
c) [line 7] ONES - against his will; involuntarily
d) [line 7] RATZON - willingly (this is the same as "Mezid" (entry #3b above) as RASHI explains)

4) [line 8] ANAS - he forced
5) [line 11] ONES RACHMANA PATREI - the Torah did not make a person liable for Ones, for an act beyond his control

6) [line 13] "[V']LO SA'AVDEM" - "[and] do not worship them" (Shemos 23:24)
7) [line 14] "VA'CHAI BAHEM" V'LO SHE'YAMUS BAHEM - the Torah commands, "He shall live in them (the Mitzvos)" (Vayikra 18:5), which implies that he shall not die because of them, but rather he should transgress in order to save his life (except for the sins of Giluy Arayos, Shefichus Damim, and Avodah Zarah)

8) [line 15] "V'LO SECHALELU ES SHEM KODSHI" - "You shall not desecrate My holy Name." (Vayikra 22:32)

9) [line 16] HA KEITZAD - how is this so (how are we to reconcile the two contradictory verses concerning whether one must give up his life when being forced to serve Avodah Zarah)?

10a) [line 17] B'TZIN'A - in private
b) [line 17] B'FARHESYA - in public
11) [line 19] BI'SHE'AS HA'GEZERAH - during the time of the decree (of the Nochrim forbidding, by penalty of death, Jews from observing the Torah)

12) [line 22] YISRAEL MUMAR - a Jewish apostate, a person who does not keep the laws of the Torah

13) [line 25] NISECH L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM YAYIN (AL) [BEIN] KARNEHA - he poured a libation of wine between its horns to the idol [that was placed on top of the animal]

14) [line 32] KEVAR TIRGEMAH RAV HUNA LI'SHEMA'ATICH B'VAVEL - Rav Huna has already taught your teaching in Bavel

15) [line 33] REVUTZAH - lying down
16) [line 34] KEIVAN SHE'SHACHAT BAH SIMAN ECHAD - once he has cut (while slaughtering the animal) a single Siman. There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus).


17) [line 5] KEIVAN D'AVAD BEHU MA'ASEH ITSERU LEHU - once he did an action to them (the holy vessels used in the Beis ha'Mikdash), they prohibited them (from being used)

18a) [line 8] BOROS - round pits or wells that are dug in the ground; cisterns
b) [line 8] SHICHIN - narrow elongated ditches
c) [line 8] ME'AROS - caves (usually leading to a spring or water source)

19) [line 10] ASA'AN CHALIPIN L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM - if he made them an exchange (replacement) for an idol

20) [line 11] CHALIPEI CHALIPIN - an exchange for the exchange
21) [line 13] "V'HAYISAH CHEREM KAMOHU" - "... and you will become shunned like it (the item of Avodah Zarah)" (Devarim 7:26)

22) [line 13] KOL SHE'ATAH MEHAYEH MIMENU - anything that you produce from it

23) [line 14] ORLAH
See Background to Avodah Zarah 48:35.

24) [line 14] KIL'EI HA'KEREM (KIL'AYIM)
(a) The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Although the term "Kil'ayim" refers to many different types of forbidden mixtures (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a), only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b) KIL'EI HA'KEREM refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus. (See Background to Bava Basra 36:4)
(c) The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah states, "Pen *Tikdash* ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7). (c) Although it is forbidden to benefit from fruits of Kil'ei ha'Kerem, if one transgresses and sells the fruits, the money that he receives in return is not forbidden, as our Gemara teaches.

25) [line 15] V'KIDESH BI'DEMEIHEN - and he married a woman with the money

(a) See Background to Avodah Zarah 50:19
(b) When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well)

27) [line 16] SHNEI KESUVIN HA'BA'IN K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together) (a) A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father," -- "father" in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.
(b) If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. Through the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is *not* meant to be applied automatically in all situations.

28) [line 18] "KI YOVEL HI, KODESH TIHEYEH LACHEM" - "It is a Yovel year, it shall be holy to you." (Vayikra 25:12) - Even though the verse is referring to Yovel, the Gemara cites it with regard to fruits of Shevi'is because the laws of Yovel and Shevi'is are the same (RITVA).

29) [line 18] TOFES ES DAMAV - it takes hold of its money (the Kedushah of the item is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it)

30) [line 20] MAH KODESH TOFES ES DAMAV V'YOTZEI L'CHULIN - just as the sanctity of an item of Hekdesh, when redeemed, takes hold of the money used to redeem it and the item itself becomes Chulin (unsanctified)

31) [line 20] B'HAVAYASAH TEHEI - in its state it shall remain

32) [line 21] MISBA'ARIN (BI'UR)
(a) See above, entry #28, Shevi'is.
(b) When each type of produce of Shevi'is is no longer available in the fields, there is an obligation to perform Bi'ur on it and on all of the items for which it was exchanged (Pesachim 52a). The Rishonim argue with regard to the definition of Bi'ur.

1. The Ramban (to Vayikra 25:7) writes that one is obligated to remove the items from his house and *declare them Hefker (ownerless)* such that they may be taken by any passerby. (One may later reacquire ownership of the produce.) If Bi'ur was not done at the right time, the produce becomes Asur b'Hana'ah mid'Rabanan.
2. According to the Rambam (Hilchos Shemitah 7:3), Bi'ur means to destroy the produce completely. At the time that it is no longer available in the fields, eating it becomes prohibited.
3. The Ra'avad (ibid.) rules that there are two types of Bi'ur. At the time that an item of produce becomes unavailable in the fields *in a certain place*, one must declare it Hefker (like the opinion of the Ramban). At the time that it becomes unavailable *in all of Eretz Yisrael*, one must destroy the produce completely (like the opinion of the Rambam).
33) [line 25] SHA'ALU ES HA'ZEKENIM B'ROMI - they (the philosophers) asked the Jewish elders in Rome

34) [line 25] IM EIN RETZONO B'AVODAS KOCHAVIM, LAMAH EINO MEVATLAH? - if it is not His will that idolatry exist, why does He not annul it?

35a) [line 27] CHAMAH - sun
b) [line 27] LEVANAH - moon
c) [line 27] KOCHAVIM - stars
d) [line 27] MAZALOS - constellations
36) [line 30] PILOSOFIN - philosophers

37) [line 35] SE'AH - a measurement of volume equal to 6 Kabin (1 Se'ah = approximately 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

38) [line 39] OSIN SELA SHELI PUMBI - they are making public My coin's mint
39) [line 45] SARCHAH ALAV MEDINAH - a country rebelled against him
40a) [last line] AFIKIM - springs
b) [last line] GE'AYOS - glens

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