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Avodah Zarah 57

1) [line 1] K'REBBI NASAN - like the opinion of Rebbi Nasan, who prohibits wine (even b'Hana'ah) that has been touched by a Nochri, even though the did not perform Nisuch (pouring a libation to his Avodah Zarah) or even Shichshuch (shaking his fingers in the wine for the sake of their Avodah Zarah) (see Chart)

2) [line 2] MEDADO - he measured it
3) [line 6] BEIRAM - Beis Baltin, between Syria and Mesopotamia (one of the mountain-peak stations of the Masu'os (signal fires), where messengers lifted lighted torches between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Benei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month. Its exact location is not known. See ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 35-36)

4) [line 7] HAVAH KA SALIK B'DIKLA - who was climbing up a date palm tree
5) [line 8] V'AISI LULEIVA - and he [cut and] brought down a palm branch
6) [line 8] BA'HADEI D'KA NACHIS - when he was descending

7) [line 15] SHE'MALU V'LO TAVLU - who had Bris Milah performed on them but has not as yet immersed in a Mikvah (GERUS: OVED KOCHAVIM SHE'MAL V'LO TAVAL)
When a Nochri converts, a male must be circumcised, and a male and a female must immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah. (Today, since there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Korban is not required for conversion.) Three Jews must be present when the convert immerses, and they must inform him of the Mitzvos.

8) [line 15] BENEI HA'SHEFACHOS SHE'MALU V'LO TAVLU - sons of Nochri maidservants who have had Bris Milah performed on them but have not immersed in a Mikvah (RASHI explains that when they were born, their mothers had not as yet immersed in a Mikvah, hence they, too, are required to immerse.)

(a) TUM'AS NOCHRIM - Even though mid'Oraisa Nochrim cannot become Teme'im, Chazal decreed (Shabbos 83a, Nidah 34a) that they have the status of Zavim (see Background to Bava Kama 24:5 and to Bava Metzia 105:30). The Zov of a Zav, his semen, blood, saliva and urine are all Avos ha'Tumah and are Metamei people and utensils mid'Oraisa. These liquids, when emitted by a Nochri, are Metamei mid'Rabanan. When emitted by Nochri slaves bought from the Nochrim or the sons of maidservants, who have had Bris Milah performed on them but have not immersed in a Mikvah (see previous two entries), our Gemara records a difference of opinion as to whether these liquids are Metamei mid'Rabanan or are completely Tehorim.
(b) TUM'AS MIDRAS - A Zav can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that are *under* him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav). An object that is under him becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(c) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or the Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(d) Utensils or clothes that lie *above* the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav.

10) [line 17] V'ELU HEN GEDOLIM, V'ELU HEN KETANIM - and the following people are considered adults, and the following people are considered minors

11) [line 18] YOD'IN B'TIV AVODAS KOCHAVIM U'MESHAMSHEHA - one who is aware of the nature of idolatry and its service

12) [line 20] HANICHA L'MAN D'AMAR TAMEI, ELA L'MAN D'AMAR TAHOR MAI IKA L'MEIMAR? - this answer is reasonable according to the opinion that rules that Rokan and Midrasan of these people is Tamei (i.e. that the words "v'Chen Benei ha'Shefachos" refer to Rokan and Midrasan). According to the opinion that rules that Rokan and Midrasan of these people is Tahor, what can we say? (That is, since the Rok and Midras of Nochri slaves is Tahor, it is completely unnecessary to record that the Rok and Midras of Benei ha'Shefachos is also Tahor.)

13) [line 26] SHE'TISHAKA - until it disappears


14) [line 15] MECHOZA - a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River, where Rava presided as the communal Torah leader

15) [line 17] HAVAH YASIV CHAMRA B'DAVLA - wine was placed (lit. sitting) in a bucket
16) [line 18] SHADI BEI YADEI - he stuck in his hand
17) [line 18] SHICHSHECH BEI - he shook his fingers in the wine
18) [line 19] SHAKLEI HA'ICH B'RISCHEI - that one (the Jewish shop owner) grabbed it (the bucket) in his wrath

19) [line 20] SHADYEI L'DANA - and threw it back into the barrel
20) [last line] NAFKEI SHIFOREI D'RAVA V'SHARU - the Shofar blowers (that announce the ruling) of Rava went out and proclaimed that the wine was permitted

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