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Avodah Zarah 58

1) [line 2] SHAM'EI - his attendant
2) [line 2] TEROK TEROK GALEI - shut the gates quickly!
3) [line 3] D'LO NEISU INSHEI D'NITRID - so that no one comes in to bother [us]
4) [line 3] AL L'GABEI - [nevertheless, Rav Huna brei d'Rav Nachman] came in to him (RASHI, see TOSFOS DH Ikla for a different account of the incident based upon an alternate Girsa)

5) [line 6] L'VAR MI'DEMEI DEHA'HU CHAMRA - besides the value of that wine (i.e. the wine that was in the bucket that was touched by the Nochri)

6) [line 8] PUMBEDISA - a town in Bavel (lit. Mouth of Bedisa, a canal of the Euphrates), the location of a great Yeshiva that existed for approximately 800 years. The scholars of Pumbedisa were known for their keen intellect (Bava Metzia 38b). To emphasize its importance as a Torah center, Rabah and Rav Yosef stated that just as one is prohibited from leaving Eretz Yisrael to Chutz la'Aretz, so, too, is one prohibited to leave Pumbedisa (Kesuvos 111a). At the time of the incident described in our Gemara, Abaye was the Rosh Yeshiva in Pumbedisa.

7a) [line 8] AKFAN NACHMANI SHEMA'ATESA U'MASNISA D'ASIR - Nachmani (i.e. Abaye -- see next entry) attacked me (lit. surrounded me) with a teaching and a Beraisa that [prove that the correct ruling with regard to the wine in the entire barrel is to] prohibit [it, from benefit as well as for drinking]
b) [line 28] NACHMANI - Abaye; (a) Rabah bar Nachmani, who raised Abaye as an orphan, gave him the name Nachmani in memory of his own father (RASHI to Gitin 34b); (b) According to the Ga'onim, Abaye's *real* name was Nachmani, but Rabah bar Nachmani, who was his uncle, called him Abaye so as not to utter his father's name, out of respect for his father (Abaye is a corrupted form of "Avyi," the Aramaic word for "my father") (ARUCH, Erech Abaye, also cited by Gilyon ha'Shas to Gitin 34b)

8) [line 10] NEHARDE'A - a town in Bavel (lit. "Wood River"), seat of the Yeshiva founded by Shmuel

9) [line 11] TEVERYA - Tiberias, a city located on the Sea Of Galilee, built by Herod Antipas (son of King Herod) in honor of the emperor Tiberias Julius Ceasar Augustus (Bereishis Rabah 23:1), approximately fifty years before the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was called Teveryah by the Jews because it lies in the center of the country ("Tibur" means navel) and because it is a sight to behold ("Tovah Re'iyasah") (Megilah 6b). It was built on the cemetery of Chamesan (Shabbos 33b-34a), and some say on the remains of an ancient walled city. At the time of the incident described in our Gemara, Rebbi Yochanan was the Rosh Yeshiva in Teverya.

10) [line 11] V'AMREI LEI LEFI SHE'EINAN BENEI TORAH - and there are those who say that the reason that Shmuel and Rebbi Yochanan prohibited the wine is not because it is prohibited according to the Halachah, rather, it is because they needed to be more stringent with the inhabitants of Neharde'a and Teverya, since they are not Torah scholars

11) [line 14] AGARDEMIM - the official appointed to oversee the royal weights and measures; at times he acts as an agent between suppliers and consumers

12) [line 14] SHE'KADACH B'MEINEKES V'HE'ELAH - who bored through the [stopper of the barrel, inserting a] straw and extracted [one drop of wine (at least)]

13) [line 18] CHARAM - (a) marauder; oppressor; (ARUCH) (b) ill-tempered lunatic (RASHI)

14) [line 23] TA ASHKINAN - Come and pour [our wine] for us (the Chachamim said this to the person who came to them)

15) [line 23] L'VASAR D'RAMA B'CHASA - after he (the Nochri) poured [the wine] into the cup


16a) [line 1] SHICHRA - beer
b) [line 2] CHAMRA - wine
17) [line 6] V'HA KA MARACH LEI?! - But did he (the Nochri) not smell [the liquid, through which he was able to distinguish whether it was wine or beer]?

18) [line 7] B'CHADTA - [we are dealing] with [a case where they were drinking] new [wine] (the bouquet of which was not distinguishable from beer)

19) [line 7] V'HA KA NAGA BEI B'NATLA - But he must have touched [the wine when he was dipping it up from the barrel with] the dipper

20) [line 8] V'HAVAH LEI MAGA OVED KOCHAVIM SHE'LO B'CHAVANAH V'ASUR - and it is a case where an idolater touches wine without the specific intention [to perform Nisuch], which is prohibited
When a Nochri touches wine or shakes his fingers in wine, if he knew it was wine and perhaps he had the intention to use it for idolatry, it is Asur b'Hana'ah. This is the conclusion of the Gemara on Daf 58a (in the case of the Nochri who shook his fingers in the wine in the bucket ("Davla"). Even if the Nochri does not have explicit intention to use the wine for Avodah Zarah, the wine becomes forbidden b'Hana'ah. Since the Nochri touched the wine intentionally, there is no difference whether or not he shook his fingers in it; the wine becomes forbidden (RITVA to 59b, DH ha'Hu Chavisa; See Chart).

21) [line 9] D'KA MORIK OROKEI - [we are dealing] with [a case where the Nochri] was pouring [the wine directly from the barrel into their cups]

22) [line 9] KOCHO SHE'LO B'CHAVANAH - his force (i.e. he did not touch the wine himself, but rather he made it move by way of tipping the barrel to make the wine come out), without intention [initially to touch wine] See Chart, especially footnotes #14, 16.

23a) [line 11] MASCHO - he diluted wine with water
b) [line 12] MAZGO - (the same as Mascho, but this is the more prevalent form of the word)

24) [line 13] "TAVCHAH TIVCHAH, MASCHAH YEINAH..." - "She has prepared her meat, she has mixed her wine, [she has also set her table.]" (Mishlei 9:2)

25) [line 14] LESHON TORAH L'ATZMAH; LESHON CHACHAMIM L'ATZMO - (lit. the language of the Torah for itself; the language of the Sages for itself) you should use the language of the Sages when you ask your questions

26) [line 15] LECH LECH, AMRIN NEZIRA, SECHOR SECHOR; L'CHARMA LO SIKRAV - "Go away, go away," we say to the Nazir, "go all around; do not come near the vineyard!"

27) [line 17] SAVTA - (a) the name "Savtah" is mentioned among that children of Kush, the son of Cham (Bereishis 10:7). The Gemara (Yoma 10a) identifies the territory of Savtah as Sakistan Gavyasa - 1. Inner Sakastan, a district in Drangonia (Drangiana) in the Persian Empire, occupied by Scythians. This district is on the border between the modern day Afghanistan and Iran, in the area of the Sea of Seistan. 2. Alternatively, Sakvastan (ARUCH), i.e. Socaston, the Greek and Roman name for Tatary, or Mongolia, the area in which the barbarian Tatars (Tartars) originated. (b) According to the Girsa *SACHUSA* (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #3) - a place in or near Eretz Yisrael, the name of which means "lookout" or "watch post," possibly Mitzpah (compare TARGUM ONKELUS to Bamidbar 23:14, "Chakal Sechusa")

28) [line 24] BATZRAH - (a) a city of Moav (RASHI to Yeshayah 63:1); (b) a fortified city, from the same root as the word "Mivtzar" (METZUDAS TZIYON)

(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given (a single grain exempts the entire batch), the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(d) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(e) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

30) [line 25] MAYA D'SAGDEI LEHU OVDEI KOCHAVIM - waters to which the idolaters prostrate themselves (worshipping the waters as idolatry)

31) [line 27] AD'MIKTORACH ALACH, ZIL HADAR - while your coat is still on, go back [and rescind your rulings]!

32) [last line] BETZER - one of the cities of refuge (Devarim 4:43), from which Terumos and Ma'asros are given

33) [last line] MAYIM SHEL RABIM EIN NE'ESARIN - public waters can never be prohibited
The Mishnah (Avodah Zarah 45a) states that anything that has no human involvement in its creation (lit. it does not contain the contribution or "handhold" of people), cannot become prohibited if it is worshipped by an idolater (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 8:1).

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