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Avodah Zarah 60

1) [line 1] V'IDACH SHARI - and the rest [of the wine in the barrel (that is not next to the spigot or that does not flow immediately through the spigot)] is permitted (even though it is connected to prohibited wine)

2a) [line 1] AD HA'BARZA, CHAMRA ASIR - [down] until the spigot, the wine is prohibited. (Since it will eventually flow through the spigot, it is
considered attached to prohibited wine and it, too, becomes prohibited)
b) [line 2] V'IDACH SHARI - and the rest [of the wine under the spigot] is permitted

3a) [line 3] PIHA - its mouth (through a stopper or lid)
b) [line 4] SHULEHA - its base, bottom
c) [line 4] TZIDEHA - its sides

4) [line 4] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares, (see Background to Makos 8:18b). After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Shevuos 11:7), he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.

5) [line 6] MI'TZIDEHA TEHORAH MI'KAN UMI'KAN - [if one pierces the barrel] from its sides [and a Tevul Yom sticks in his finger, the wine] above and below (lit. here and there) is Tahor

6a) [line 7] OVED KOCHAVIM A'DANA - if an idolater is pouring from a barrel (lit. is on the barrel)
b) [line 7] V'YISRAEL A'KUVA - and a Yisrael is holding the container [into which the wine is being poured] (lit. is on the container)

7) [line 10] V'IY METZADED TZEDUDEI, ASIR - and if he (the Nochri) moves the container sideways, it (the wine) is prohibited (RASHI DH Chamra Asur (according to the Girsa of the Bach #5) offers two explanations: 1. if the container is full, perhaps he touched the wine; 2. if the container is not full, perhaps he moved the container in such a way that its edges or sides touched the wine as it was flowing, which is no different from touching wine with a palm branch (Daf 57a; this explanation of Rashi follows the opinion of the Me'iri; see Chart)

8) [line 11] D'DARI ZIKA - who was carrying a leather bottle [of wine]
9) [line 12] D'LO MEKARKESH - since he cannot perform Kirkush, shaking the wine in a container for the sake of Avodah Zarah (since the bottle is full, the wine in it cannot move from side to side -- see Chart)

10a) [line 13] KUVA MALYA, ASIR - if a container [of wine] is full, it is prohibited (perhaps he touched the wine)
b) [line 14] CHASEIRA SHARI - if the container [of wine] is not full, it is permitted (since his hands are not close enough to touch the wine without the Yisrael noticing, and it is not the custom of idolater to perform Kirkush, shaking the wine in a container for the sake of Avodah Zarah, with an open container)

11) [line 16] MA'ATZRA ZAIRA - a winepress in which the grapes are squeezed by a beam, and are not trampled directly by the feet

12a) [line 18] KOCHO - his (the Nochri's) force, e.g. standing upon the beam that is squeezing the grapes (RASHI)
b) [line 19] KO'ACH KOCHO - his indirect force, such as turning the wheel (O.F. viz; O.G. espinle - a screw or vice) of the winepress that presses the beam onto the grapes

13) [last line] NEHAR PEKOD - a town in Bavel on the Pekod River


14) [line 1] D'IFKE'AH L'ORKAH - that split, cracked from its top to its bottom (i.e. up and down, when it is upright), and was in danger of falling apart with one half falling one way and the other half falling the other way

15) [line 2] CHAVKAH - he hugged it (keeping it from falling apart)
16) [line 4] L'ORKAH - lengthwise (i.e. up and down, when it is upright)
b) [line 4] L'FUSYAH - widthwise

17) [line 5] MA'ASEH LEVEINAH KA'AVID - he is performing the action of a brick (i.e. pressing down upon the upper part of the barrel to make sure that the two parts stay together is no different from placing a brick upon the upper part of the barrel to press it down upon the lower part; he has not prohibited the wine since the action of his body in particular is irrelevant)

18) [line 6] D'ISHTAKACH D'HAVAH KAI B'MA'ATZARTA - who was found to have been standing in a Jew's winepress

19) [line 8] TOFE'ACH L'HATPI'ACH - moist to the extent that it makes anything that touches it also moist

20a) [line 8] HADACHAH - cleaning
b) [line 9] NIGUV - drying (with ashes and water -- see Daf 75a)

21) [line 11] IM YESH LO MILVEH ALAV - (lit. if he has a loan on him) if the Jew owes money to the Nochri

22) [line 13] MEDADO BA'KANEH - measured it (the wine) with a reed pole
23) [line 13] HITIZ ES HA'TZIR'AH - splashed [wine in order to chase away] a wasp
24) [line 14] HAYAH MATPI'ACH AL PI CHAVIS MERUTACHAS - he touched the foam on the top of a barrel of bubbling [wine]

25) [line 15] NATAL ES HE'CHAVIS - he lifted up the barrel
26) [line 16] V'ZARKAH BA'CHAMASO LA'BOR - and he threw it (the barrel) in his wrath into a pit (the Gemara on Daf 61a will change this statement and interpret that it means that he rolled it all the way to the pit)

27) [line 18] SHE'YESH LO MILVEH AL OSO YAYIN - the Jew owes the Nochri money and has specified that he will pay hi back with this wine

28) [line 19] HA'METAHER YEINO SHEL OVED KOCHAVIM - a Jew who prepares Kosher wine from the grapes of a Nochri

29) [line 20] V'NOSNO BI'RESHUSO - and he stores it on his (the Nochri's) property
30) [line 20] V'HALAH - and that one, i.e. the Nochri
31) [line 23] BEIS SHE'AN - the Roman city of Beis She'an
32) [line 26] SHE'ALAH MES - he (the Nochri) was brought up [from the pit] dead
33) [line 27] D'DAMI ALAH K'YOM EIDAM - since it is similar to him like the day of his idol's festival (having been saved from drowning, he will probably be on his way to give thanks to his idol, performing Nisuch to the wine on his way up)

34a) [line 39] KOL SHEB'ZAV TAMEI (ZAV)
(a) A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah (the Tum'ah generated by a Zav is discussed in the following entry). Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Bava Kama 25:6) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e) In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the *first two* were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if *all three* emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).

b) [line 39] KOL SHEB'ZAV TAMEI, B'OVED KOCHAVIM OSEH YAYIN NESECH - anything that becomes Tamei when a Zav touches it (whether directly or through an object such as a stick), will become Yayin Nesech when a Nochri touches it (whether directly or through an object such as a stick) (TUM'AS HA'ZAV)
(a) A Zav (see previous entry), Zavah (see Background to Sanhedrin 87:6c), Nidah (see Background to Avodah Zarah 47:29) or Yoledes (see Background to Shevuos 8:5), can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie *above* the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav or Zavah. In our Sugya, Rav Ashi rules that the Maga (touch, either directly or through an object) of a Zav has the same effect with regard to Tum'ah as the Maga of a Nochri with regard to Yayin Nesech. Anything that becomes Tamei when a Zav touches it will become Yayin Nesech when a Nochri touches it.
(d) A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or an object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does *not* Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way. In our Sugya, Rav Ashi is only discussing the Maga of a Zav, not Tum'as Heset (RASHI).

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