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Avodah Zarah 65

1) [line 1] AVIDARNA - the name of a Nochri who was not an idol worshipper
2) [line 1] YOM EIDAM - the day of an idolatrous festival

A Ger Tohav (see Background to Avodah Zarah 64:15) is among the people who the Jews are obligated to insure his wellbeing, as the verse states, "v'Chei Achicha Imach" - "so that your brother may live with you" (Vayikra 25:36).

4) [line 7] HAREI HU K'MIN SHEB'OVDEI KOCHAVIM - he is like a heretic of the idolaters

5) [line 8] AMTI LEI KURBANA / KORBENA - he brought him a tribute
6) [line 9] BAR SHEISHACH - the name of an idolater who was an official in the Sassanid Persian Empire

7) [line 11] B'VARDA - in [a pool of] rosewater
8) [line 18] PERISTEKA D'MALKA - an agent of the king
9) [line 22] "BENOS MELACHIM BI'YKEROSECHA, NITZVAH SHEGAL LI'YMINCHA B'CHESEM OFIR." (Tehilim 45:10) - "Daughters of kings are among those who honor you (the People of Yisrael), the queen stands erect at your right in the golden jewelry of Ofir." (Tehilim 45:10)

10) [line 25] "... AYIN LO RA'ASAH ELOKIM ZULASCHA, YA'ASEH LI'MCHAKEH LO." - "[For since the beginning of the world men have never heard, nor observed,] nor has the eye seen a god besides You, that acted for those who wait for Him." (Yeshayah 64:3) - The Gemara interprets this phrase as, "... no eye has ever seen -- except Yours, HaSh-m -- [what] He will do for those who trust in (lit. wait for) Him."

11) [line 27] V'AF AL GAV D'LO AMAR LEI L'ITOSEI EREV?! - And even though he did not say to him [to move the barrel of Yayin Nesech] towards nightfall?! (At nightfall, the day is over and the worker has already earned his day's wage -- and as such, the payment for moving the barrel will not be prohibited. If he does not say to move the barrel towards nightfall, the payment will be prohibited)

12) [line 41] KESUSO - (a) his cloak (RASHI); (b) alt. Girsa KASTO - a small pillow upon which he sits or upon which he rests his head when he sleeps (TOSFOS)

13) [line 41] CHAMAR - the donkey driver (who drives the donkey for the entire time that the donkey is rented)

14a) [line 42] SE'ORIM - barley (the best food for donkeys -- Bava Kama 19b)
b) [line 42] TEVEN - straw (second-best food for donkeys)

15a) [line 44] MI AMRINAN LEI NAKI LEI AGRA D'LEGINASO? - [If the renter does not put a bottle on the donkey,] do we say to him (the donkey driver), "Deduct the (prorated) rental fee for [the fact that the renter did not take] his bottle"? (That is, since there is no deduction in the rental fee, the fees do not pertain to the Yayin Nesech)
b) [line 44] NAKI LEI - deduct for him

16) [line 46] DI'SHECHI'ACH L'MITRACH UL'MIZBAN ME'AVNA L'AVNA - it is frequent for one to make an effort to buy [provisions] from station to station


17) [line 1] HAVAH SHAFICH LEHU CHAMRA L'OVDEI KOCHAVIM - he would pour wine for idolaters [from the barrels that he sold them into their leather bottles]

18) [line 1] V'AZIL ME'ABAR LEHU MA'BARA - and he went and ferried them across the ford of the river

19) [line 2] V'YAHAVU LEI GULFEI B'AGRA - and they gave him the barrels as his payment (i.e. they actually never held the barrels. Even though they were entitled to keep the barrels when he sold them the wine, they gave them to him as payment for his efforts.)

20) [line 4] D'LO NITZTERU ZIKEI - that the leather bottles do not crack (in which case they would need to take back their barrels)

21) [line 5] D'MASNI BAHADAIHU - [in this case,] they stipulated with one another [that if the leather bottles crack, he will not give them back their barrels]

22) [line 5] D'MAISU PERISDEKEI BAHADAIHU - they brought empty [extra] containers with them [in case the leather bottles break]

23) [line 7] D'AMAR LEI L'MAVRUYA ME'IKARA - he told the ferry driver in advance [that he should transport for free whoever buys wine and needs to be transported across the river; the ferry driver obeyed his wish either because Rav Ika was the appointed head of the region (RASHI) or because he was such a great Talmid Chacham (RITVA)]

24) [line 8] DI'NEKITEI BEI KITREI - that they would be holding from him seals (these seals, or knots, were permanent passes given by Rav Ika to the merchants; see Background to Shabbos 77:16)

25) [line 9] YADICHEN - he must rinse them
26) [line 9] IM HAYU MEVUKA'OS ASUROS - if they were cracked (or detached from the cluster, which leaves a hole in them), they are forbidden (because they absorbed the Yayin Nesech)

27a) [line 10] TE'ENIM - figs
b) [line 11] TEMARIM - dates

28) [line 11] IM YESH BAHEN B'NOSEN TA'AM, ASUR - if there is in them enough [Yayin Nesech] that it gives its taste to them, then it is forbidden

29) [line 12] GEROGEROS - dried figs

30a) [line 15] KOL SHEB'HANA'ASO B'NOSEN TA'AM, ASUR - anything [forbidden] which gives its taste [to a permitted food] such that he derives pleasure from it (i.e. the forbidden food gives a beneficial taste to the permitted food), is prohibited
b) [line 15] KOL SHE'EIN B'HANA'ASO B'NOSEN TA'AM, MUTAR - anything [forbidden] which does not give its taste [to a permitted food] such that he derives pleasure from it (i.e. the forbidden food gives a bad taste, or no taste, to the permitted food), is permitted

31) [line 16] CHOMETZ - vinegar
32) [line 17] GERISIN - [Cilician] beans
33) [line 17] CHASUREI MICHASRA - it is certainly missing [some text] (see Insights to Bava Kama 39:1:a)

34) [line 18] NOSEN TA'AM LI'FEGAM - it gives a bad taste (lit. it gives a taste to ruin)
35) [line 22] KERI D'CHITEI - a pile of wheat

36) [line 25] BEGED SHE'AVAD BO KIL'AYIM - a garment in which a thread of Kil'ayim was lost (SHA'ATNEZ)
(a) The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ayim of clothing.
(b) Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words -- "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz." (For an explanation of these words, and for a description of the prohibition of Sha'atnez, see Background to Bava Kama 113:17.)

37) [line 26] LO (YA'ASENAH) [YA'ASEHU] MIRDA'AS L'CHAMOR - he may not make it into a saddle pad (or pack-saddle) for a donkey (TOSFOS here DH Harei explains that the Chachamim prohibited using the cloth as a saddle pad, lest the owner's garment tears and he inadvertently takes a piece of the cloth in order to mend his garment, thereby transgressing the Isur d'Oraisa of Sha'atnez)

38) [line 27] AVAL OSEH OSO TACHRICHIN L'MES MITZVAH - but he may make it into shrouds for a Mes Mitzvah (because a dead person is not obligated to fulfill the Mitzvos); a Mes Mitzvah refers to a dead Jew found unattended with no relatives to deal with his burial.

39) [line 29] HADAR SHARA L'MITCHINHU UL'MEFINHU UL'ZABUNINHU L'OVDEI KOCHAVIM SHE'LO BIFNEI YISRAEL - he retracted [his original ruling] and permitted the wheat to be ground [into flour], baked [into bread], and sold to Nochrim not in the presence of Jews. Rava permitted the wheat to be sold in this manner, because there is no fear that another Jew will buy the bread from the Nochri, since the bread of Nochrim is prohibited (Avodah Zarah 35b). Rava permits this only when no other Jew is present, because if another Jew is present and sees the first Jew selling the bread to the Nochri, he will assume that it is permitted and he might buy it from the Nochri.

40) [last line] HO'IL B'AGAV TZIRAIHU KI'MEVUKA'OS DAMYAN - because of their crevices (in the wheat), they are like cracked [grapes]

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