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Avodah Zarah 75

AVODAH ZARAH 72-76 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1a) [line 3] RETIVTA - moist (the pit of the winepress is still moist with the wine of the Nochri, and thus ashes must be used first to dry the area before it can be cleaned)
b) [line 3] YABESHTA - dry

2) [line 3] ITMAR BEI RAV MI'SHEMEI D'RAV - it was said in the Yeshiva of Rav, in the name of Rav

3) [line 4] TARTEI TELAS / TELAS ARBA'AH - two, three / three, four. Rav and Shmuel argue about how many processes are needed when cleaning a winepress purchased from a Nochri. Rav says that two processes (water, ashes) are necessary for a moist winepress, while three processes (water, ashes, water) are necessary for a dry one. Shmuel says that three processes (water, ashes, water) are necessary for a moist winepress, while four processes (water, ashes, water, ashes) are necessary for a dry one. (See Chart.)

4a) [line 5] B'SURA MASNEI HACHI - in the Yeshiva of Sura, they learned [the Machlokes between Rav and Shmuel] thusly (as just described)
b) [line 6] B'PUMBEDISA MASNEI HACHEI - in Pumbedisa, they learned thusly (as follows)

5) [line 10] GORGEI D'ARAMA'EI - (a) (O.F. redorte) a kind of lattice work, belonging to Nochrim, made of poles interwoven with thin branches or reeds, which covers and keeps together the olives or grapes beneath the press (RASHI); (b) a box-like, flexible woven basket, belonging to Nochrim, made of thin branches or palm leaves, used as a receptacle in an olive press (RAV HAI GA'ON, cited by Rashi)

6) [line 11] BEIS BADAV - his olive press
7) [line 12] DAPIN - the boards placed over the pile of grapes or olives being pressed

8) [line 12] ADASHIN - (O.F. mait) the press itself, where the grapes or olives are placed

9) [line 12] LULAVIN - (a) (O.F. escove) [twigs used as] brooms, brushes (RASHI); (b) the two posts supporting the beams of the press (ARUCH)

10) [line 13] MADICHAN - one must wash them [with water]
11) [line 13] AKALIN - see above, entry #5
12) [line 13] NETZARIN - wooden boards
13) [line 13] BATZBUTZ - (O.F. chenevaz) hemp (cannabis), a tall Asiatic herb with tough fiber that is used for making cloth, floor covering, and cords

14) [line 14] SHIFAH - (O.F. paveil) a kind of rush (a marsh or water-side plant with a slender, tapering, pith-filled stem)

15) [line 14] GEMI - (O.F. jonc) reed-grass, bulrush
16) [line 14] MEYASHNAN 12 CHODESH - one must age them (leave them unused) for twelve months

17) [line 16] HAINU TANA KAMA! - that is the same as the first Tana! (That is, the Tana Kama says that one must leave these items unused for twelve months, while Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says that one must leave them from one pressing season until the next, which, presumably, is also a period of twelve months)

18) [line 16] CHURFEI - early (when the following year's pressing season comes early, there are less than twelve months from season to season)

19) [line 16] AFELEI - late (when the following year's pressing season comes late, there are more than twelve months from season to season)

20a) [line 17] MAG'ILAN B'ROSCHIN - he may immerse them in boiling water
b) [line 18] CHOLTAN B'MEI ZEISIM - (O.F. eschalder) he may scald them in the liquid that emerges from olives when they are cooked

21) [line 19] TZINOR - a pipe
22) [line 20] MEKALCHIN - pouring forth
23) [line 20] MA'AYAN - a wellspring
24) [line 20] SHE'MEIMAV RODFIN - (O.F. rabdes) whose water gushes rapidly
25) [line 21] ONAH - time period
26) [line 22] KELAPEI LAYA?! - Towards which direction is it turning? (The opposite would be reasonable!)

27a) [line 28] TEKUFAS NISAN V'TISHREI - [days during] the seasons of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (when the length of the day and the length of the night are the same)
b) [line 29] TEKUFAS TAMUZ V'TEVES - [days during] the seasons of the summer and winter solstices (when the nights are very short and the days are very long, or when the nights are very long and the days very short)

28) [line 30] RAVAKEI D'ARAMA'EI - straining bags of Nochrim
29a) [line 30] D'MAZYA - made of human hair
b) [line 31] D'AMRA - made of wool
c) [line 31] D'CHISNA - made of linen
30) [line 32] KITREI - knots
31) [line 32] SHARI LEHU - untie them (so that any wine absorbed in them will come out)

32) [line 32] DEKULEI - baskets
33) [line 32] CHEL'ASA - a wine-strainer
34) [last line] D'CHAITEI B'CHAVLEI D'TZUREI - that are woven with ropes made of peeled palm leaves


35) [line 1] D'TZAVSA - (O.F. lesche) [that are woven with ropes made] of carex (sedge) twigs, a type of grass-like herbs

36) [line 2] AM HA'ARETZ - an unlearned person who is not careful to remain Tahor
37) [line 3] ESHKOLOS - a cluster of grapes
38) [line 4] KOL SEVIVOSAV - all of its surrounding area (the grapes and wine that are adjacent to the cluster that the Am ha'Aretz touched)

39) [line 8] SHERETZ
A Sheretz (a crawling pest -- see Background to Shabbos 107:5), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38, Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

40) [line 8] RECHAYIM - the crushing stone used to grind olives before placing them in the press

41) [line 10] LO MAFSAK V'LO MIDI - there is nothing intervening [between the Sheretz and all of the olives and oil in the crushing stone, as the liquid joins them together and transfers the Tum'ah to everything there]

42) [line 10] HACHA MAFSEKEI ESHKOLOS - here, the clusters of grapes separate [the source of the Tum'ah from the other grapes]

43) [line 15] ES SHE'DARKO L'HATBIL - that type of utensil whose normal manner [of purification] is to immerse it in a Mikvah (that is, such a utensil was used only for cold items, and thus it suffices to immerse it in a Mikvah)

44) [line 15] YATBIL - he shall immerse it in a Mikvah.

45) [line 16] YAG'IL - he shall immerse it in boiling water (HAG'ALAH)
"Hag'alah" entails immersing the utensil into boiling water so that the prohibited substance that entered the walls of the utensil through boiling will be expelled through boiling.

46) [line 16] YELABEN B'UR - he shall heat it in fire (LIBUN)
"Libun" entails "whitening" the utensil with the heat of a flame so that the prohibited substance is expelled from the utensil.

47a) [line 16] SHEPUD - a spit (skewer)
b) [line 17] ASKELAH - (O.F. gradil) grill
48) [line 17] SHAFAH - (O.F. limer) file it

49) [line 20] "KOL DAVAR ASHER YAVO VA'ESH TA'AVIRU VA'ESH V'TAHER, [ACH] B'MEI NIDAH [YISCHATA…]" - "Every thing that comes into fire, you shall make it go through fire, and it shall be Tahor. [Nevertheless, it shall be purified] with the water of sprinkling..." (Bamidbar 31:23) - This verse refers to Hechsher Kelim, purifying utensils from the forbidden matter that has entered into their walls.

50) [line 23] HAZA'AH SHELISHI U'SHEVI'I - sprinkling on the third and seventh days (TUM'AS MES)
(a) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas, see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:19) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)
(b) The Gemara here asks that perhaps such a procedure is necessary for the purification of utensils purchased from Nochrim.

51) [line 24] CHALAK - [the word "Ach" in the verse] divides/differentiates

52) [line 25] ARBA'IM SE'AH - 40 Se'ah of water. (MEASUREMENTS OF VOLUME)

  • 1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
  • 1 Se'ah = 6 Kabim
  • 1 Kav = 4 Lugim
  • 1 Log = 6 Beitzim

  • 1 Beitzah = approximately 0.0576 liters or 0.1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

  • 40 Se'ah = approximately 331.7 liters or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
53) [line 27] [B']KOL DEHU - in any amount (even in a Mikvah that is lacking 40 Se'ah)

54) [line 29] HE'EREV SHEMESH K'NIDAH - the setting of the sun [is necessary for the utensils to become permitted] just like [it is necessary for a woman who was Temei'ah with Tum'as] Nidah

55) [line 30] L'ALTAR - right away
56) [line 34] ZUZA D'SARBELA - scissors used for cutting strips of wool
57) [line 36] LEKUCHIN - utensils that are purchased
58) [line 36] UCH'MA'ASEH SHE'HAYAH - and like the incident that occurred (when the Jews took possession of the utensils of Midyan -- Bamidbar 31:1-54, esp. 21-23)

59) [line 37] SHE'ULIN - borrowed
60) [line 38] MANA D'MARDA - a utensil made of earth and cattle dung

61a) [line 41] KLEI MATACHOS - metal utensils. This refers to a utensil made from one of the six types of metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22): gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead. (See Insights to Avodah Zarah 75b.)
b) [line 42] KLEI ZECHUCHIS - glass utensils

62) [line 43] KUNYA - (O.F. plumer) (a) earthenware utensils that are covered with lead (RASHI); (b) earthenware utensils that are covered with glass (ARUCH, cited by RABEINU TAM in TOSFOS to Kesuvos 107b, and the ROSH to Pesachim 20b)

63) [line 46] MASHKANTA - an item given as collateral for a loan
64) [line 46] ABA MISHKEN LEI OVED KOCHAVIM KASA D'CHASPA - a Nochri gave as collateral a silver goblet to my father

65) [line 48] D'DA'ATEI LI'SHEKU'EI - that his intention was to forfeit it
66) [line 50] TZONEN - cold food or liquid
67a) [line 50] KOSOS - cups
b) [line 50] KITONIYOS - flasks
c) [line 50] TZELOCHIYOS - bottles with a wide belly and a narrow neck
68) [line 51] CHAMIN - hot food or liquid
69a) [line 51] YOROS - cauldrons
b) [line 51] KUMKEMUSON - kettles
c) [line 52] MECHAMEI CHAMIN - hot-water boilers
70) [line 52] UR - flame

71) [line 56] GI'ULEI OVDEI KOCHAVIM - the prohibited food items of idolaters (the taste of which is absorbed in their utensils, and thus a Jew may not eat any food cooked in those utensils)

72) [last line] KEDEIRAH BAS YOMA - a pot that was used to cook non-kosher food that same day

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