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Chulin 24

CHULIN 23-24 - have been sponsored through the generous contribution of Reb Uri Wolfson and family. May he continue to watch his children grow in Torah and Yir'as Shamayim, following in the footsteps of their illustrious parents and grandparents, shlit'a.



(a) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk (in connection with the Goral between the two goats [la'Hashem and la'Az'azel] on Yom Kipur) "Ve'asahu Chatas" - that they are determined exclusively by lots.

(b) Otherwise, we would have learned from the birds of a Zav or of a Yoledes - which are determined by designation (and not by lots), that the goats, which can be determined by lots, can certainly be determined by designation.

(c) This Beraisa, which holds that the 'Kal va'Chomer' overrides "Chukah" (which the Torah inserts here) poses a Kashya on "Ve'shachat" and "Chukah" - where (as we just explained), "Chukah" overrides the 'Kal va'Chomer.

(d) We answer - by citing the Pasuk "Eglah ha'Arufah", which specifically precludes anything other than the Eglah, from the Din of Arifah (and a specific Miy'ut does override a 'Kal va'Chomer, even though "Chukah" does not).

(a) We try to prove from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from Parah, that Shechitah should be eligible by an Eglah - because if it is eligible by a Parah, even though Arifah is not, then it should certainly be eligible by an Eglah, where it is.

(b) We refute this proof however, from "Ve'arfu ha'Eglah" - which the Torah repeats, to teach us that Arifah is crucial to the Mitzvah.

(a) The Beraisa explains our Mishnah 'Kasher be'Kohanim, Pasul bi'Levi'im; Kasher bi'Levi'im, Pasul be'Kohanim' to mean - that whereas Kohanim become Pasul through Mumin, Levi'im become Pasul by age.

(b) A Levi is Pasul from performing the Avodah of a ben Levi - before the age of thirty, and after thw age of fifty.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "*Zos* Asher la'Levi'im" - that a ben Levi becomes Pasul through age, but not through a Mum.
2. ... "Zos *Asher la'Levi'im*" - that only Levi'im become Pasul through age, but not Kohanim.
(d) We would otherwise have thought that ...
1. ... blemishes disqualify a Levi from serving - 'Kal va'Chomer' from a Kohen, who does not become Pasul through age, whereas he (a Levi) does.
2. ... age disqualifies a Kohen from performing the Avodah - 'Kal va'Chomer' from a Levi, who does not become Pasul through Mumin, whereas he (a Kohen) does.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Naso "La'avod Avodas Avodas Avodah va'Avodas Masa" (written immediately after the age limit of the Levi'im mentioned there) - that the top age limit by Levi'im only applied to the Mishkan in the desert, but not to the Mishkan in Shiloh or the Beis-Hamikdash ...

(b) ... since the reason for this age period was due to the loads that the Levi'im had to carry (see Agados Maharsha) - and no carrying took place once they entered Eretz Yisrael (only singing and guarding the gates).

(c) And the Tana learns from the discrepancy between the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha, which gives the age of a ben Levi as twenty-five, and the Pasuk in Naso, which gives it as thirty - that the Levi'im would come to the Mishkan to learn the Halachos five years before they were due to begin performing it?

(a) The Tana Kama learns from there - that a Talmid who, after five years of study, sees no progress in his learning (e.g. he continues to forget all that he learns), will not succeed in the future either.

(b) Whereas Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Daniel "u'Legadlam Shenayim Shalosh, u'Lelamdam Seifer ve'Lashon Kasdim" - that already after three years, a Talmid should know that he will not succeed.


1. The Tana Kama declines to learn it from the Pasuk in Naso - because it refers mainly to the study of Aramaic, which is easy.
2. Rebbi Yossi, on the other hand, declines to learn it from the Pasuk in Daniel - because the Hilchos Avodah of a Levi (incorporating the Dinim of building and dismantling of the Mishkan, and all the component parts, and of singing and playing the instruments) are particularly difficult. See Agados Maharsha.
(a) Another Beraisa discusses the Pesulim of both the Kohanim and the Levi'im. A Kohen begins to perform the Avodah at the age of - bar Mitzvah, and ...

(b) ... he retires - when he becomes old (as we shall see later).

(c) A Levi became Pasul in Shiloh and the Beis-Hamikdash - when his voice no longer blends with the voices of the other Levi'im.

(d) Rebbi Yossi learns this from a Pasuk in Divrei- Hayamim "Vayehi ke'Echad la'Mechatzatzrim ve'li'Meshorarim u'Lehashmi'a Kol Echad". He interprets "u'Lehashmi'a Kol Echad" to mean - that their voices must blend until they sound like one voice.




(a) Rebbi Ila'a Amar Rebbi Chanina defines the 'old age' (at which a Kohen retires) as - when his hands and feet begin to shake from old age.

(b) We learned in a Mishnah in Mikva'os that a Ba'al Keri who Tovels without having urinated, becomes Tamei as soon as he does - because we suspect that some of the Keri remained inside the limb, and it came out together with the urine.

(c) Rebbi Yossi restricts the Tana Kama's ruling - to someone who is sick or old.

(d) Rebbi Ila'a Amar Rebbi Chanina defines 'Yeled' (young) in this context - as someone who can take off and put on, his shoe, whilst standing on one foot.

(e) Rebbi Chanina attributed the fact that he was still able to do this at the age of eighty - to the hot water and oil with which his mother used to anoint him when he was young.

(a) The Beraisa permits a person to be appointed as a Sheli'ach-Tzibur from the moment his beard is fully grown. A Sheli'ach-Tzibur is - someone who sees to all the communal needs, such as blowing the Shofar, administering Malkos, placing in Cherem and to appoint the community president.

(b) Besides permitting a Kohen to Duchen (Nesi'as Kapayim) regularly - 'Nismalei Zikno' also authorises a person to be appointed the community Chazan (see Tosfos DH 'Nismalei Zikno').

(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa permits a Kohen to perform the Avodah from the time he turns bar-Mitzvah. According to Rebbi - this is only from the age of twenty.

(d) Rav Chisda explains that Rebbi learns his opinion from the Pasuk in Ezra "Va'ya'amidu es ha'Levi'im mi'ben Esrim Shanah va'Ma'alah Lam'natze'ach al Meleches Beis Hashem". The Rabbanan counter that however - with 'Lem'natze'ach Sha'ani' (meaning that the twenty-year olds performed the heavier types of tasks that required more strength).

(a) The problem with Rebbi's interpretation of the Pasuk in Ezra (that we just quoted) is - that the Pasuk is written in connection with the Levi's, who only become Pasul through voice change (and not through age)?

(b) And we answer with a statement of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi - who states that in twenty-four places throughout T'nach, the Pasuk refers to the Kohanim as Levi'im (incorporating this one, and ...

(c) ... including the Pasuk in Yechezkel "ve'ha'Kohanim ha'Levi'im b'nei Tzadok".

(a) Rebbi Elazar in a Beraisa, learns from the Pasuk "*Ish* mi'Zar'acha le'Dorosam ... Lo Yikrav Lehakriv Lechem Elokav" - that a Katan is Pasul to perform the Avodah.

(b) He says - that although a thirteen year old Kohen is eligible to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash, the other Kohanim would not let them do so until they reached the age of twenty.

(c) Bedi'eved however, the Beraisa clearly holds that a thirteen-year old's Avodah is not Pasul (even mi'de'Rabbanan). Assuming the author to be Rebbi (whom we cited earlier), the Rabbanan will then hold - that the Kohanim did not in fact, stop him from serving (even Lechatchilah).

(d) If however, the author of the Beraisa is the Rabbanan, then Rebbi will hold that until the age of twenty, a Kohen is forbidden to serve mi'de'Rabbanan, and that if he does, his Avodah is Pasul.

(a) The Beraisa interprets our Mishnah ...
1. ... "Tahor bi'Chelei Cheres, Tamei be'Chol ha'Keilim" to mean - that whereas if Tum'ah touches the back of an earthenware vessel, the vessel remains Tahor, if it touches the back of any other vessel, it becomes Tamei.
2. ... "Tahor be'Chol ha'Keilim, Tamei bi'Chelei Cheres - that whereas if something Tamei is dangled inside any other vessel, the vessel remains Tahor, if it is dangled inside an earthenware vessel, it becomes Tamei.
(b) The Tana of another Beraisa learns from the Pasuk in Shemini "ve'Chol K'li Cheres Asher Yipol Meihem (with reference to a Sheretz) el Tocho" - that something Tamei that is dangled in the air space of an earthenware vessel renders the vessel Tamei.

(c) And Rebbi Yonasan ben Avtulmus learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Tocho" from "Kol Asher be'Tocho Yitma" (Litamei from Letamei) - that it renders the vessel Tamei even if it does not actually touch the vessel.

(d) 'Litamei' means - to become Tamei, whereas 'Letamei' means to make others Tamei.

(a) When we say that we learn 'Letamei' itself from the fact that the Pasuk speaks even about a case where the K'li is full of mustard-seeds - we mean that the Pasuk is therefore speaking about food in the earthenware oven becoming Tamei via the Sheretz, even though it is not actually touching it, as we shall now see.

(b) Besides the fact that each seed is less than a k'Beitzah (which cannot be Metamei others with regard to Tum'as Ochlin), the mustard seeds could not possibly all become Tamei through touching - a. because food is not Metamei food, and b. because that would entail each seed receiving Tum'ah from one that is touching it (and in the realm of Chulin, there is no level of Tum'ah lower than a Sheini le'Tum'ah).

(c) This forces us to conclude - that the mustard-seeds all become Tamei through the Tum'ah filling the air space (but not through touching).

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