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Chulin 47

CHULIN 47-50 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.



(a) According to Rava, one cannot examine two blisters that are side by side - because at the point where they meet there is a hole (in which case there is nothing to examine).

(b) In a case where there is one blister that looks like two - (meaning that there is a split in the middle of the blister), one takes a thorn and makes an incision in one of the blisters, and checks whether they pour into each other (in which case they are one blister and the animal is Kosher), or not.

(a) Rava describes the lung when it is hanging by its forelegs, with its innards facing the Shochet. It has ...
1. ... three Unos on the right ...
2. ... and two on the left.
(b) The animal is Tereifah, according to Rava, if ...
1. ... there are either too many Unos on either side or too few, or if there are ...
2. ... two Unos on the right and three on the left.
(c) Rava declares Tereifah an animal with a lung that has an extra Unah - based on the principle 'Kol Yeser ke'Natul Dami' (one too many is like one too few).
(a) In the case of a lung that a Shochet brought before him which had an extra Una - Mereimar declared it Kosher.

(b) When, at Rav Acha's instigation, the Shochet returned to Beis-Din to query Mereimar's ruling, the latter instructed him - to go and inform the man sitting outside the courtroom that the Halachah was not like Rava in the case of an extra Una ...

(c) ... provided - it ran alongside the others as part of the row of Unos.

(d) He conceded however, that it is Tereifah, if the extra Una is situated in the middle (in the area of the Inunisa de'Varda) or at the end (between the two Umos) - or if it is attached to the Uma.

(a) A case came before Rav Ashi with an extra Una in the middle, which Rav Ashi wanted to declare Tereifah. Rav Huna bar Rav Ivya objected however, on the grounds that this Una (the Inunisa de'Varda) was common in the area where he came from, and should therefore be considered an extra Una in its regular location.

(b) Rav Ashi was unaware of this - because in his territory, the Inunisa de'Varda was uncommon.

(c) This Una is called 'Inunisa de'Varda' - because it is small and bears a slight resemblance to a rose.

(d) Rav Huna bar Ivya agree that even an Inunisa de'Varda as small as a myrtle-leaf renders the animal Tereifah - if it is situated at the back of the lung instead of at the front.

(a) In spite of the fact that nowadays, the vast majority of lungs possess an Inunisa de'Varda, should one discover one without it - the animal is Kosher.

(b) We reject the opinion of those who maintain that if a lung is missing an Una, the Inunisa de'Varda constitutes the third Una on the right - because it does not run alongside the other Unos.

(c) And should we discover a lung with two Inunisa de'varda - the animal is Tereifah.




(a) Rafram declares an animal whose lungs resemble an Ufsa, Tereifah. An 'Ufsa' is - a block of wood.

(b) There are no less than five interpretations of what Rafram means. Some say that it means 'ba'Chazuta', which means that it resembles a rough block of wood in looks. Others say 'be'Gishta', and yet others, 'di'Nefichah', which mean - that it feels rough or that it is hard, respectively.

(c) According to the Aruch, 'Pechiza' means light (weight). Finally, 'de'Shi'a means - that it is not shaped like a lung with its five Unos, but consists of one large piece on the right and one on the left.

(d) An animal whose lungs have the markings of a regular lung, but are not properly cut - is Kosher (seeing as it no longer resembles a block of wood).

(a) Rava declares an animal with blue lungs, Kosher, with black lungs, Tereifah, based on a statement by Rebbi Chanina, who says - that black blood is really red blood that has been stricken.

(b) Rava declares a lung which is red or green - Kosher.

(c) He learns this from Rebbi Nasan in the Beraisa concerning the two women whose first two babies died on account of the B'ris Milah - and who teaches us that excess blood or lack of blood, is something that heals in a matter of time.

(a) Rebbi Nasan advised ...
1. ... the first woman, whose third baby was red - to wait until the blood had become absorbed in the flesh before circumcising him.
2. ... the second woman, whose third baby was green - to wait until the blood had surfaced before circumcising him.
(b) In both episodes - the women followed Rebbi Nasan's instructions, the baby survived and they called him 'Nasan', after his name (as a mark of gratitude).

(c) Rava declares an animal whose lung resembles a liver, Kosher, a piece of meat - Tereifah.

(d) The Si'man that he gives as a reminder that it is the latter that is Tereifah is - the Pasuk in Mishpatim "u'*Basar* ba'Sadeh *Tereifah* Lo Sochelu".

(a) Rav Sama b'rei de'Rava - declares Treifah a lung that is the color of hops, of safflower or of an egg.

(b) We reconcile the ruling regarding hops (which are green) with the previous ruling of Rava, who declared a green lung, Kosher - by establishing Rava's ruling by one that is green like a leek.

(c) Ravina discusses a blocked lung (that one is unable to blow up). One could declare it Kosher without any more ado - if one cut it open and found it full of puss.

(d) Assuming that one did not find any puss there - one would have to examine it for escaping air, using a feather or spittle (as we explained earlier).

(a) Rav Yosef rules that a membrane that grows over a wound in the lung - does not prevent the animal from being declared a Tereifah, since the membrane will not remain permanently intact (as we explained earlier).

(b) We have already cited Rav's Yosef's discussion regarding a lung which emits a noise. Ula Amar Rebbi Yochanan rules - that a lung that 'pours like a jar' is Kosher.

(c) We might have assumed it to be Tereifah - because, the melted flesh no longer fills the cavity, seemingly rendering it a Re'ah she'Chasrah).

(d) We extrapolate from Ula's statement - that an internal Chisaron is not considered a Chisaron.

(a) Rebbi Aba queries Ula from our Mishnah 'ha'Re'ah she'Nikvah O she'Chasrah (Tereifah)'. Rebbi Aba thinks that the Tana is referring to an internal Chisaron (posing a Kashya on Ula), rather than an external one - because otherwise, what is the difference between 'Re'ah she'Nikvah' and 'Re'ah she'Chasrah?'

(b) To refute Rebbi Aba's proof, we establish the Mishnah like Rebbi Shimon who qualifies the Din of 'ha'Re'ah she'Nikvah' - by requiring that the hole penetrates as far as the Simponos.

(c) This refutes Rebbi Aba - inasmuch as the Tana may well be speaking about an external Chisaron, and the Mishnah's Chidush is that although Rebbi Shimon qualifies the Tana Kama's ruling regarding 'Nikvah', he does not do so regarding 'Chasrah'.

(a) When Rebbi Chananyah fell ill and Rebbi Nasan and all the Gedolei ha'Dor went to visit him, they brought with them - a lung that poured like a jar, for him to examine.

(b) He too, declared it Kosher, and Rava qualifies his ruling - be requiring that the Simponos remain intact.

(c) Rav Acha b'rei de'Rava asked Rav Ashi how it was possible to know whether the Simponos have remained intact or not. The latter replied - that one would cut open the lung and allow the contents to spill into an earthenware dish overlaid with lead, and inspect the contents for white spots, an indication that the Simponos had melted too, in which case the animal will be Tereifah.

(d) He mentioned specifically an earthenware dish overlaid with lead - because it allowed a clearer view of the contents than other receptacles of that time.

(a) Rav Nachman declares Kosher an animal part of whose lung has melted, but not the skin. This differs from the previous case (of Re'ah she'Nishpechah ke'Kiton) - inasmuch as in this case, it is not the entire lung that melted, but only a small part of it. On the other hand, unlike the previous case, it emptied completely.

(b) He says that ...

1. ... the animal is Kosher - even if the part of the lung that is empty could have held as much as a Revi'is.
2. ... an animal whose womb is missing - is Kosher too.
(c) Rav Nachman also cited a She'eilah asked by the b'nei Asya regarding a liver that had become wormy. It took three Yamim-Tovim for the Gedolei Yavneh to reach a conclusion and take a vote on the matter.

(d) They ultimately ruled - that it was Kosher.

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