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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Chulin 59



(a) Rav Yehudah rules that someone who eats three measures of Chiltis on an empty stomach - will develop a high fever, which in turn, will cause his skin to fall off.

(b) Rebbi Avahu claimed that this is almost what happened to him after eating one measure. He quoted the Pasuk "ve'ha'Chochmah Techayeh Ba'alehah" - after he avoided that by sitting in cold water.

(c) Rav Yosef says that someone who eats sixteen eggs, four nuts, seven grains of a caper bush and then drinks a Revi'is of honey, all on empty stomach, in mid-summer - will literally lose his heart.

(a) When a deer arrived in the Resh Galusa's house with its hind legs almost completely severed - Rav examined the Tzomes ha'Gidin and after finding them intact, declared it Kasher.

(b) He intended to salt it well and eat it slightly roasted.

(c) Shmuel queried Rav's ruling - because he suspected that the deer might have been bitten by a snake (and was therefore dangerous to eat).

(d) He therefore suggested that Rav examine it - by placing it on the oven, which he did, and the deer fell to pieces.

(e) When Shmuel applied to Rav the Pasuk "Lo Ye'uneh la'Tzadik Kol Aven", the latter responded with the Pasuk "Kol Raz Lo Anis Lach" (meaning that nothing was hidden from Shmuel).

(a) The signs of Beheimos and Chayos our Mishnah states, are given in the Torah, whereas those of birds are not (though in fact, the Rabbanan did gave signs).

(b) The one sign that proves that a bird is Tamei (not Kasher) is - that it is Dores (lifts its prey off the ground as it eats it [see also Rabeinu Gershom and Tosfos 61a DH 'ha'Dores']).

(c) Every bird with an extra claw and a crop plus one other sign, is Tahor. The third sign is - that its Kurkevan peels off.

(d) The extra claw is situated - at the back of the foot, slightly higher than the other claws.

(e) According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok, a bird parting its feet (as will be explained in the Sugya) - also determines that it is Tamei.

(a) Kasher locusts possess four signs. They must have four legs, four wings and jumping legs - and its wings must cover its body.

(b) Rebbi Yossi adds to this - that it must also be called a Chagav.

(c) Regarding a Kasher fish, the Tana Kama requires 'S'napir' - a fin, and 'Kaskeses' - a scale.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah requires - one fin and at least two scales.

(a) The Beraisa gives the Simanim of a Beheimah. Initially, the Tana says that any animal that chews its cud - has no upper teeth and is Kasher.

(b) We answer the Kashya from a camel, which chews its cud and has no upper teeth, yet it is Tamei - by establishing that it does have Nivi (which means either two large teeth, or gums).

(c) We nevertheless refute the initial version of the Beraisa from ...

1. ... a young camel - which chews its cud and has neither regular upper teeth, nor Nivi, yet it is Tamei.
2. ... a rabbit and a hare - which chew their cud, yet they have upper teeth and are Tamei.
(d) And besides - how can the Tana present no upper teeth as a major sign of Tum'ah, when the Torah says nothing about them?
(a) We therefore amend the Beraisa - to read that if an animal has no upper teeth, it means that it chews its cud and has cloven hooves, and is therefore Kasher (provided one recognizes a young camel (Tosfos DH 'be'Yadu'a').

(b) We cite Rav Chisda to explain why one cannot simply examine the animal's hooves. Rav Chisda states that if someone who is traveling in a desert - comes across an animal with its feet severed, he examines its mouth. In the event that is has no upper teeth, one can take for granted that it chews its cud and that it had cloven hooves.

(c) However, one can only rely on this Bedikah - if one recognizes a young camel (which chews its cud and has no upper teeth, even though it is Tamei).

(d) We know that there is no other Tamei species that chews its cud and has no upper teeth - because a young camel is the only Tamei species that fits this bill.

(a) Tana de'bei Rebbi Yishmael learns from the Pasuk "ve'es ha'Gamal ki Ma'aleh Geirah *Hu*" - that the camel is the only Tamei species that chews its cud (see Tosfos DH 'Ein Lecha').

(b) Rav Chisda also says that if someone is traveling in a desert and comes across an animal whose mouth is cut off - he examines its feet. If the hooves are fully cloven, then the animal is Kasher.

(c) He would however, have to be wary of the possibility that the animal was a Chazir, which has fully cloven hooves, yet it is Tamei.

(d) To answer the Kashya that perhaps it is another species of Tamei animal whose hooves are fully cloven, we cite Tana de'bei Rebbi Yishmael, who learns from the Pasuk "ve'es ha'Chazir ki Mafris Parsah *Hu*" - that the Chazir is the only species of Tamei animal that has fully cloven hooves.

(a) Rav Chisda states further that someone who is traveling in the desert and comes across an animal whose feet and mouth have both been cut off - examines the skin of the animal, to see whether it runs in two direction (i.e. part of it peels vertically and part of it horizontally).

(b) He would have to search - on its upper leg underneath the thigh-bone.

(c) He would however, need to be wary of the fact that it might be an Arod - a wild ass.

(d) This latter Siman of Rav Chisda is based on a Kabalah (tradition) of Chazal - who also knew that there is no other species of Tamei animal that possesses this Siman.




(a) The Beraisa gives the Simanim of a Chayah. This does not appear to be necessary - because a Chayah has the same Simanim of Kashrus as a Beheimah.

(b) The Tana nevertheless see fit to do so - in order to permit the animal's Cheilev (which would be Asur if it was a Beheimah).

(c) The two Simanim of a Chayah are - long hooves (see Rosh, Siman 57) and horns.

(d) According to Rebbi Dosa - the Siman of horns would suffice on its own.

(e) He also says that even though a Chayah called 'Keresh' - possesses only one horn, its Chelev is permitted.

(a) To answer the Kashya from ...
1. ... a goat, whose hooves are long too, we also require the horns to be 'Keruchos' which means - layered.
2. ... an ox, whose horns are layered too, we also require them to be 'Charukos' which means - notched.
3. ... a goat, whose horns are notched as well, we also require them to be 'Mefutzolos', which means - forked.
4. ... an ibex (a wild goat) whose horns are not forked, we add 'Chaduros' to the list of requirements. 'Chaduros' means - pointed.
(b) We reject the wording 'Haduros' (Maharshal) which means 'round' - because 'Keruchos' incorporates round. Note, having explained that a goat's horns are wide and not round, Rashi appears to have contradicted what he said earlier, that the horns of a goat are 'Keruchos'.

(c) The third Kashya ('ve'Harei Eiz de'Charukos') is not really a Kashya - because we could have answered that the previous answer (of Keruchin') has not been negated, as the Kashya assumes.

(d) We qualify the Siman of 'notched' - to mean literally full of notches (with one notch going into the other).

(a) Consequently, there are two sets of Simanim by which (besides long hooves), one can identify a Chayah by its horns. It will suffice - if the horns are forked (since no Beheimah has forked horns).

(b) The alternative set is - notched (to preclude the possibility of it being an ox), and layered and pointed (to preclude a goat and an Iza Karkoz [which we will now discuss]).

(a) The problem concerning the species 'Iza Karkoz', whose horns are pointed and full of notches - is that we are not sure that, since it is called 'Iza' (a goat [see Rashash]), whether it is a species of Beheimah (whose Cheilev is forbidden) or a Chayah.

(b) When the Resh Galusa's household obtained a basket-full of Cheilev from am Iza Karkoz, Rav Acha'i forbade it. Rebbi Shmuel b'rei de'Rebbi Avahu - ate some of it ...

(c) ... quoting the Pasuk "mi'Pri Pi Ish Tisba Bitni" - (by which he meant that he had carefully noted the oral tradition that permits it) to justify what he did.

(d) We conclude that the Halachah is like Rebbi Shmuel b'rei de'Rebbi Avahu, but add - that one should treat Rebbi Acha'i's opinion with respect (and not eat it in front of him), because he enlightened the people in Galus with his Torah.

(a) Rav Yehudah describes the Keresh (possibly a one-horned deer or a giraffe) as the deer of 'Bei Ila'i' forest, and a 'Tigris' - as the lion of 'Bei Ila'i' forest.

(b) According to Rav Yosef, the distance between one Una and the next is nine Amos. The total length (or the length of the skin) of the Keresh is - sixteen Amos.

(c) The Emperor of Rome asked Rebbi Yehoshua what was so special about the Pasuk in Amos' comparison of Hashem to a roaring lion - when a strong man riding a horse is able to kill a lion.

(d) The latter replied - that the Pasuk is not referring to an ordinary lion, but to Aryeh de'bei Ila'i.

(a) When the Emperor insisted that he shows him the Aryeh de'bei Ila'i - Rebbi Yehoshua Davened, and sure enough it began to move in their direction. (b) When the beast roared at a distance of ...
1. ... four hundred Parsah - all the pregnant women miscarried and the walls of Rome fell.
2. ... three hundred Parsah - all the men of Rome's teeth fell out and the emperor fell off his throne.
(c) The Emperor reacted - by asking Rebbi Yehoshua to Daven for it return to its place, which it did.
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