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Chulin 62

CHULIN 61-63 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.



(a) Rav Nachman permits eating a bird that has ...
1. ... one Siman Taharah - provided one is familiar with a Peres and an Ozniyah.
2. ... two Simnei Taharah - provided one is familiar with a raven.
(b) The men of the village of Tamarta in Yehudah used to eat starlings (Zarzir) because they possess a crop. According to the second Lashon in the Beraisa, the men of upper Galilee used to eat swallows (Sanvanis Levanah) - because their Kurkevan peels easily.

(c) Either way, Rebbi Eliezer who disagrees, commented on the Rabbanan's statement - that those who did so will have to give Din ve'Cheshbon.

(a) When the Rabbanan cited the reason for the Heter because the one bird had a crop and the other's Kurkevan peeled easily - they meant to preclude them from the family of the raven, because neither Siman is one of the Simanim of a raven (which must therefore be 1. that it is Doreis, 2. that it does not have an extra claw).

(b) Rebbi Eliezer learns Zarzir from "le'Miyno" in spite of that - because the fact that the Zarzir goes to live with the ravens indicates that it is a member of the same family.

(c) In any event, Rebbi Eliezer learns one of these birds from "le'Miyno", whereas the Rabbanan will learn other birds from there (see Tosfos DH 'Rebbi Eliezer Omer'). And when the Tana permits eating a bird with two Simanim on the basis of the fact that one is familiar with a raven - he means the raven and whatever "Miyno" incorporates.

(a) Ameimar permits eating a bird with one Siman, provided that we have not seen the bird actually being Doreis (see Tosfos DH 've'Hu') - which means that it holds its food down whilst eating it (refer also to our Mishnah).

(b) When Rav Ashi queried him from Rav Nachman's earlier ruling, he replied - that he did not agree with the latter, because neither the Peres nor the Ozniyah are commonly found in residential areas.

(c) Rav Yehudah permits a bird that scratches for the Taharah of a Metzora - by which he means the Sanvanis Levanah over which Rebbi Eliezer and the Rabbanan argue.

(a) According to Ameimar, Rebbi Eliezer and the Rabanan are arguing over a swallow with a green stomach. Both agree that one with a white stomach - is Kasher.

(b) Mar Zutra establishes the Machlokes - by a swallow with a white stomach. Both agree that one with a green stomach is forbidden.

(c) In the first Lashon, Ameimar rules like Rebbi Eliezer (who forbids a swallow with a green stomach) - Mar Zutra in the second Lashon rules like the Chachamim (who permits one with a white stomach).

(d) According to the first Lashon (Ameimar), the Beraisa refers to the bird over which they are arguing as 'Sanvanis 'Levanah*' - to preclude a black (house) swallow, which both opinions agree, is forbidden.

(a) Rachbah Amar Rav Yehudah considers a 'Tasil' a dove, and 'Atzipi' and 'Torin shel Rechavah' pigeons. Consequently - the former are eligible to be brought as a Korban when it is small, and the latter, only when they have grown-up.

(b) Rav Daniel bar Ketina queries this from the Mishnah in Parah.

1. All birds invalidate the Mei Chatas (of the Parah Adumah) when they drink from it - because they lap up the water in their beaks, and some of it spills back into the jar, invalidating the remaining water because of water with which Melachah has been performed.
2. We consider the dove an exception - because it sucks the water (rather than laps it up), and none of it spills back into the jar.
(c) Rav Daniel bar Katina's Kashya is - that, according to Rav Yehudah, the Tana ought to have precluded a Tasil, as well.

(d) Rebbi Zeira answers that even though the Tasil sucks the water (like a dove), the water nevertheless becomes Pasul - because it 'vomits' some of the water back into the jar from which it sucked it (whereas a regular dove does not).




(a) Rav Yehudah permits a type of pigeon called 'Kufshani Tzutzi'ani' to go on the Mizbe'ach. Torin shel Rechavah (that we cited on the previous Amud) - is another name for it.

(b) The Mishnah in Parah - disqualifies Eizov (hyssop, used in connection with the sprinkling of the Mei Chatas) which has a secondary name, such as Eizov Yavan, Kuchli, Romi or Midbari.

(c) The problem with 'Kufshani Tzutzi'ani' (bearing in mind that 'Kufshani' is merely the Aramaic translation of 'Torin') is - that seeing as the Torah refers specifically to Torin S'tam, why does this does prelude 'Kufshani Tzutzi'ani'?

(a) Abaye therefore draws a distinction between something that changed its name (into various auxiliary names [as we just explained]) before Matan Torah, and the Torah is particular to call it only by its original name and not by one of its auxiliary names (disqualifying the latter) - and something which did not changes its name in this way, which the Torah has therefore not excluded, and can be brought in any of its auxiliary forms (which is why Kufshani Tzutzi'ani can be brought on the Mizbe'ach even though it has a auxiliary name)?

(b) According to Rava, Kufshani Tzutzi'ani are eligible to go on the Mizbe'ach - because in their own town (Tzu'tzi'an) they are referred to as S'tam 'Kufshani'.

(a) Rav Yehudah - declares Kasher the Karzi (a type of locust [see also Tosfos DH 'Karzi']) that live among the nettles, but forbids those that live among the cabbages.

(b) Ravina declares someone who eats the latter Chayav Malkos - on the basis of having eaten Sheretz ha'Of. The Chidush is - that this particular type of locust is Vaday Asur, and not just a Safek.

(c) Rav Yehudah permits a Tzarda but forbids a Barda (names of birds). A Siman by which to remember which is which - is the fact that the forbidden species begins with 'Beis' 'Reish', which spells 'Bar', meaning 'not' (a reminder that it is not permitted).

(d) Rav Yehudah - considers 'Marda' a Safek.

(a) Rav Asi - lists Chova, Choga, Suga, Chanuga, Tushl'mi, Marda, Kuchilna and bar Nafcha as S'feikos.

(b) These little birds - are not Doreis, they possess a crop and they have an extra claw (which would render them Safek 'Tereifah', since they might belong to the twenty species with three Simanim which the Torah forbids [see Tosfos DH 'Mai'])?

(c) The Safek is - whether they are not Kasher, because of the fourth Siman, since it was possible to peel their Kurkevan, but only with a knife. Note, it is unclear how we initially appear to consider Marda a type of locusts, and then include in the eight types of birds.

(d) Shmuel took the duck whose crop they had difficulty in peeling - and placed it in the sun until it softened and peeled with ease.

(e) The above case is different, because unlike the case of Shmuel - they were not able to peel it with their hands.

(a) Abaye equated a marsh rooster with 'Mardu' - one of the eight Sefeikos listed by Rav Asi.

(b) The Siman Rav Papa gives to remember that whereas a marsh rooster is forbidden, a marsh hen is permitted is - 'Amoni, ve'Lo Amonis' (Chazal's D'rashah that whereas an Amoni man is forbidden to marry into K'lal Yisrael, a woman is permitted).

(c) Mereimar disagrees, declaring even a marsh-hen (which is synonymous with a Girusa, which will be discussed in 'Kol ha'Basar') forbidden - after it was discovered to be Doreis.

(d) The Chumra that was instituted as a result of Mereimar's ruling is - not to eat any bird for which we do not have a tradition that it is Kasher (in case it turns out to be Doreis).

(a) The Siman Rav gave to remember that a Shavur Andarfta is permitted, whereas a Piruz Andarfta is forbidden is 'Piruz Rashi'a' - since Piruz it seems, was a well-known Rasha of that time.

(b) Similarly, Rav Huna gave a Siman to remember that Bunya is permitted and Parva is forbidden as 'Parva Amgusha' - which means Parva the magician. He was the one who built the Lishkas Beis ha'Parvah in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(c) Rav Papa too, declares a Zagid ve'Achil Kasher, whilst forbidding a Sagid ve'Achil. Bearing in mind that 'Sagid' means to prostrate oneself, he quoted the Pasuk "Lo Sichtachaveh le'Eil Acher", to remind us which is which.

(d) Shmuel gave two Simanim. He reminded us that ...

1. ... a Shasya Chamra is forbidden - by citing the Halachah 'Shesuyei Yayim Pesulin' (disqualifying Kohanim who have drunk wine from performing the Avodah).
2. ... a bas Mazga Chamra is permitted, even though a Mazga Chamra is forbidden - via the statement 'that the strength of the son is superior to that of the father' (cited earlier in the Perek).
(a) Rav Yehudah discusses two types of red-colored Shakitnas, one with long calves, the other, with short ones. He gave the Siman 'Murzema' to remind us that the first one is Kasher - because Murzema is the name of a Kasher bird.

(b) The Siman he gave as a reminder that ...

1. ... the short-calved Shakitna is forbidden is - 'Nanes Pasul' (which means that a Kohen who is a dwarf is Pasul to perform the Avodah).
2. ... a third species with long calves but which is green-colored is forbidden is - 'Yerokin Pesulin' (as we learned above in connection with the burnt intestines of an animal).
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