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Chulin 84

CHULIN 81-84 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) We just learned that Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis are not subject to Kisuy ha'Dam, since they are Asur be'Hana'ah. One cannot redeem animals of Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis and cover the blood after the redemption - because, as we learn from the Pasuk "Ve'he'emid es ha'Beheimah Lifnei ha'Kohen Ve'he'erich Osah ha'Kohen", an animal of Hekdesh needs to be stood before Hashem before it is redeemed (precluding the possibility of redeeming them after their death).

(b) This answer is not valid however, according to Rebbi Meir, who includes Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis in the Din of Ha'amadah ve'Ha'arachah - because, since he holds 'Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah Sh'mah Shechitah', they ought still to be included in the Din of Kisuy ha'Dam.

(c) The problem according to Rebbi Shimon, who holds 'Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah Lo Sh'mah Shechitah is - that, according to him, Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis do not require Ha'amadah ve'Ha'arachah (in which case it is still possible to redeem them after the Shechitah and to cover the blood).

(d) And our Mishnah, which says 'Aval Lo be'Mukdashin' - goes according to Rebbi, who holds 'Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah Lo Sh'mah Shechitah (like Rebbi Shimon), and Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis require Ha'amadah ve'Ha'arachah (like Rebbi Meir).

(a) Alternatively, the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi Shimon, who Darshens from the Pasuk "Ve'shafach Ve'chisah" - that if in addition to Shefichah (i.e. Shechitah) and Kisuy, the animal also requires Pidyon, it is Patur from Kisuy ha'Dam (exempting Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis from Kisuy ha'Dam, even though it would be possible to redeem them).

(b) In that case, we conclude, we could equally well establish our Mishnah - by Kodshei Mizbe'ach, according to everyone - by making the equivalent D'rashah, to preclude from Kisuy ha'Dam a Kodshim animal whose blood requires scraping from the knife in addition to Shefichah and Kisuy.

(c) Whereas Mar bar Rav Ashi Darshening "Chayah O Of" - explains that just as a Chayah that is not Kadosh requires Kisuy, so too, does a bird that is not Kadosh require Kisuy (but not one that is).

(d) And we refute the suggestion to preclude Torin and B'nei Yonah from Kisuy ha'Dam altogether, because sometimes they are Hekdesh - by rather Darshening that just as all Chayos (without exception, are subject to Kisuy, so too are all birds (provided they are Chulin) subject to Kisuy.

(a) Ya'akov Mina'ah asked Rava that - just as "Beheimah" incorporates "Chayah" regarding Simanim (as we learned in 'Beheimah Hamaksheh'), so too, let "Chayah" incorporate "Beheimah" as regards Kisuy ha'Dam.

(b) Rava answered by citing the Pasuk "al ha'Aretz Tishpechenu ka'Mayim" - which teaches us that the blood of a Beheimah that does not go on the Mizbe'ach, is permitted like water (and does not require covering).

(c) And he then learns from the Pasuk "Ach Ma'ayan u'Bor Mikveh Mayim Yih'yeh Tahor" - that one may only Tovel in water, but not in blood (even though it is compared to water, as we just explained).

(a) In fact, we conclude, there are three Pesukim "Ma'ayan Mayim", "Mikveh Mayim" and "Bor Mayim". Because, even though "Mayim" is only written once - it is as if it was written together with each of the three words.

(b) We need both "Mikveh Mayim" and "Bor Mayim", because, had the Pasuk ...

1. ... only written "Ma'ayan Mayim", we would have thought that all other liquids are Pasul for a Mikveh, except blood, which the Torah compares to water.
2. ... added "Mikveh Mayim", and not added "Bor Mayim" - we would have precluded other liquids from the Din of 'Zochlin' (spring water which flows down a slope) but not from water that is collected in a pit (i.e. a Mikveh).
(c) The Torah writes (in connection with Kisuy ha'Dam) "Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah", adding the word "Tzeid" - to teach us that even birds that are already trapped, such as geese and chickens, require Kisuy ha'Dam (and not only wild birds that one catches).

(d) We learn from "Asher Yatzud" - that it is not Derech Eretz to eat meat without hunting (because if one constantly uses one's own supply of animals as sustenance, one will soon become impoverished).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk (in connection with the Heter to eat meat outside the Beis-Hamikdash) ...
1. ... "Ki Yarchiv Hashem Elokecha es Gevulcha ... ki Se'aveh Nafsh'cha Le'echol Basar" - that one should only eat meat if one has a desire for it (and not as a matter of principle).
2. ... "Ve'zavachta mi'Bekorcha u'mi'Tzoncha" - that one should rather Shecht one's own animals than purchase meat from the market.
3. ... "Ve'zavachta *mi*'Bekarcha u'*mi*'Tzoncha" - that when one does, one should Shecht some of the animals, but not all of them.
(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, taking his cue from this Pasuk, said that someone who possesses only one Manah - should purchase only vegetables to eat together with his bread.

(c) If he owns ten Manah, he permits him to purchase a Litra of fish, whereas if he owns ...

1. ... fifty Manah, he permits - the purchase of a Litra of meat.
2. ... a hundred Manah - he even permits a pot full of meat every day.
(d) He permits the previous purchases - only from Erev Shabbos to Erev Shabbos, in honor of the Shabbos.
(a) Rav maintains that one needs to follow the advice of Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya. Rebbi Yochanan disagrees - on the grounds that Rav was able to live so frugally, because he was from a particularly healthy family, but that others who are not (as he wasn't), are advised to take every spare Perutah to the store to purchase more food (rather than starve and then need to come on to others).

(b) Rav Nachman goes even further. He advises someone who has no money at all to - borrow and purchase food.

(c) The Beraisa interprets the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Kevasim li'Levushecha" - to mean that one should purchase sheep, which will produce wool with which to manufacture clothes.
2. ... "u'Mechir Sadeh Atudim" - that it is worthwhile selling a field to purchase sheep (from which one obtains wool and milk), and not the other way round (see also Rabeinu Gershom).
3. ... "ve'Dei Chaleiv Izim" - that one should retain one's goats for their milk and not Shecht them.
4. ... "le'Lachm'cha le'Lechem Beisecha" - that one's own sustenance takes precedence over that of one's family.
5. ... "ve'Chayim le'Na'arosecha" - that one should train one's family to live within their means.



(a) Rebbi Yochanan advises a person who wishes to become wealthy - to go into the sheep trade.

(b) Rav Chisda learns this from the Pasuk "ve'Ashteros Tzonecha" - which hints to the fact that they enrich their owners 'she'Me'ashros es Ba'aleihen').

(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan - a bewitched cup is preferable to a cup of warm water.

(d) However, he qualifies this statement in three ways. It is harmless, he explains, if drunk in an earthenware (rather than a metal) receptacle. Alternatively, one can place - any herbs or spices even inside a metal cup, rendering it harmless.

(e) And what's more, even if one drinks plain warm water in a metal cup, one is assured that it will do no harm - if the water boiled first.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan also describes what a person whould do if his father left him money, which he wants to get rid of. He refers to money acquired in this way - because people tend to be more careless about the way they treat money for which they did not work hard ('Easy come, easy go').

(b) He advise such a person - to dress in linen clothes, to use glass vessels, and to hire workers and not supervise them.

(c) By ...

1. ... 'flax clothes' he means - Roman flax, which is very expensive.
2. ... 'glass vessels' he means - white glass, which is very expensive too.
3. ... 'hire workers', he means - that he gives them his oxen to work with, a recipe for disaster, because they will cause them to become wounded by taking them into the forests and vineyards.
(d) Rebbi Yochanan is coming to teach us - that this a sure way to lose all one's money (see also Agados Maharsha).
(a) Rav Avira Darshened the Pasuk "Tov Ish Chonen u'Malveh, Yechalkel D'varav ba'Mishpat", sometimes in the name of Rebbi Ami and sometimes in the name of Rebbi Asi. The Pasuk means - that it is a good thing to grace the poor and lend them money, but when it comes to his own needs, one should live according to one's needs (rather than to one's desires).

(b) Based on the latter half of the Pasuk, Rebbi Yochanan draws a distinction between the food that one eats - which should rather be a bit less than according to one's means; the clothes that one wears - which should be according to one's needs, and the way that one treats one's wife and children - which should be over and above one's means.

(c) To explain his last statement, he adds - because whereas he is dependent upon Hashem, they are dependent upon him.

(a) Rav Eina Darshened at the entrance of the Resh Galusa's house that someone who Shechts a fowl for a very sick person on Shabbos - must cover its blood.

(b) When Rabah exclaimed in disgust 'Lishmetuhah la'Amoreih Mineih', he may have meant that they should cut out his tongue (though he probably did not mean this literally). He might also have meant - that they should remove the Amora who sat in front of him to convey his teachings to the Tzibur (in order to put him to shame).

(c) Rabah's reaction is based on a Beraisa, where Rebbi Yossi exempts the blood of a Shechted Coy from Kisuy ha'Dam. He learns it from Milah - whose Vaday overrides Shabbos, yet his Safek (i.e. because he was born Bein Hashemashos) does not override Yom-Tov, 'Kal-va'Chomer Kisuy, whose Vaday does not override Shabbos.

(d) The Chachamim queried Rebbi Yossi's 'Kal va'Chomer from Teki'as Shofar - whose Vaday does not override Shabbos either (outside the Beis-Hamikdash), but whose Safek overrides Yom-tov in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(a) Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar b'Rivi (the great man) asked on Rebbi Yossi's 'Kal va'Chomer from Milah - that whereas Milah does not apply on Yom-Tov night (and maybe that is why its Safek does not override Yom-Tov), Kisuy ha'Dam does (so maybe its Safek will override Yom-Tov).

(b) Rebbi Aba commented on Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar's Pircha - that this (Rebbi Yossi's 'Kal va'Chomer') was one of the cases where Rebbi Chiya had nothing to say, but Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar did.

(c) In any event, Rebbi Yossi stated 'Kisuy she'Ein Vaday Docheh Shabbos', which Rabah interprets to mean - when one Shechted for a sick person (a Kashya on Rav Eina).

(d) And he refutes the suggestion that Rebbi Yossi is referring to where one Shechted illegally (and not for a sick person) - on the grounds that it must be similar to Milah, which refers to a legal act.

(a) When the Rabbanan refuted Rebbi Yossi's proof by citing Teki'as Shofar, when they said ' ... u'Sefeikah Dochah Shabbos', they could not have meant Safek Chol Safek Yom-Tov - because if Teki'as Shofar overrides Vaday Yom-Tov, it certainly overrides Safek Yom-Tov.

(b) What they must mean have meant is - 'Safek Ish Safek Ishah' (i.e. a Tumtum or an Androginus, who is Patur from Shofar should she be a woman).

(c) And Rebbi Yossi argues with them - because he follows his own ruling in a Beraisa, where he and Rebbi Shimon permit women to perform voluntary Semichah on a Korban (even though it ought to be forbidden because it entails working with Kodshim, where there is no Mitzvah to do so (which is the Tana Kama's reason for forbidding it). Likewise here, a woman is permitted to blow Shofar on Yom-Tov, even though she is not obligated to do so (see also Tosfos DH 'Nashim').

(d) Kisuy ha'Dam is different - inasmuch as it involves a Melachah d'Oraysa, and even Rebbi Yossi will agree that its Safek does not override Yom-Tov.

(a) Ravina asks on the Rabbanan, who learn that the Kisuy ha'Dam of a Coy should override Yom-Tov with a 'Kal va'Chomer' from Teki'as Shofar - that we cannot learn a leniency by Kisuy ha'Dam from Teki'as Shofar, since Teki'as Shofar has the advantage over Kisuy ha'Dam - in that its Vaday overrides Shabbos in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whilst Kisuy ha'Dam possesses no such leniency.

(b) The problem with the Lashon of Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar 'Mah le'Milah she'Kein Einah Noheges be'Leilei Yamim-Tovim' is - that it infers that on other nights, it applies, whilst in reality, it does not apply on any night.

(c) We therefore amend it to - 'Mah le'Milah she'Kein Einah Noheges ba'Leilos ke'va'Yamim'.

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