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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Chulin 88

CHULIN 86-90 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) The Beraisa learns that blood that squirts on the ground and blood that sticks to the knife require covering, from - "Ve'chisahu" (as we will explain shortly).

(b) Another Beraisa includes (in the Din of Kisuy) from "Vechisahu". blood that squirts on to the ground and 'Dam she'al Agapayim' - which is blood that squirts on to the walls of the abattoir.

(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies the Tana Kama's ruling - by confining it to where they did not cover the Dam ha'Nefesh.

(d) The Chachamim interpret "Damo" to mean all its blood, whereas according to ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah it means - some of the blood.
2. ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, it means - its principle (life) blood.
(a) Our Mishnah lists the things that are, and that are not, eligible to cover with. One may use soft dung, thin sand, lime, ground earthenware and a brick and the lid of a barrel that have been pounded - but not thick dung or sand, or a brick or lid of a barrel that have not been pounded.

(b) One may not use an overturned receptacle to cover the blood.

(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel states - that anything in which plants grow, is eligible to cover with.

(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan defines 'thin sand' as - sand that a potter does not need to grind.

(b) When we say that some quote Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan on the Seifa, we mean - than they refer to the statement disqualifying thick sand, which Rebbi Yochanan defines as sand that a potter does need to grind.

(c) The difference between the two versions is - sand that is fairly thick, which can be broken by hand, which is eligible according to the first version (since it refers to it as thin sand), but not eligible according to the second version (since it refers to it as thick sand).

(a) The Beraisa learns from the fact that the Pasuk writes "be'Afar" - that one must use something that falls under the category of 'earth' with which to cover the blood, and not stones or an overturned receptacle.

(b) Had the Torah written 'u've'Afar Yechasenu' - Kisuy ha'Dam would have been restricted to real earth (exclusively).

(c) And from the fact that the Torah writes "Ve'chisehu be'Afar", the Tana now Darshens - that one may use anything that falls under the category of earth (such as those contained in the first list in the Mishnah [even though it is not real earth]).

(a) The latter Beraisa adds to the Mishnah's list of what is eligible for Kisuy ha'Dam and what is not. The Tana incorporates ...
1. ... ground stones, ground clay, fine shavings of flax and of saw-dust in the list of things that are eligible, and ...
2. ... ground metal vessels, flour, oats and bran in the list of things that are not.
(b) The Tana incorporates the former list in the first list in the Mishnah - because they fall under the category of 'earth', and the latter in the second list - because they do not.



(a) We ask that "Ve'chisahu" should be a 'Klal', and "be'Afar" a 'P'rat' - and we have a principle 'Ein bi'Ch'lal Ela Mah she'bi'P'rat' (the 'K'lal' is confined to the 'P'rat' [in which case, one would only be permitted to cover with earth]).

(b) Rav Mari answers - that this case is different, because the 'K'lal' itself incorporates two opposite kinds of commodities, a. something complete (like an overturned vessel) and something comprising broken particles (like earth). Consequently, we need the P'rat to indicate which one to preclude from the K'lal.

(c) We Darshen a 'K'lal u'P'rat' - in a case where the K'lal incorporates various details of the same kind, in which case the P'rat will preclude them all.

(a) Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda rules that for Kisuy ha'Dam, one may only use earth in which seeds will grow - precluding desert sand in which nothing grows.

(b) When Rava referred to that as a joke - Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak told him that it was not funny, and that, in fact, it was he who had told taught it to him.

(c) In the Beraisa that he cited as his source (that desert sand is not eligible for Kisuy ha'Dam), the Tana advises someone traveling ...

1. ... in a desert, who has no earth to perform Kisuy ha'Dam - to grind a golden Dinar and cover the blood with the dust.
2. ... in a ship, who has no earth to perform Kisuy ha'Dam - to burn his coat and use the ashes to cover the blood.
(d) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Afros Zahav Lo" - that ground gold-dust is called 'Afar'.
(a) With regard to the Beraisa's earlier case, the Torah refer to ashes as 'Afar' - in Chukas (in connection with the Parah Adumah) "me'Afar Sereifas ha'Chatas".

(b) This is the opinion of Beis Hillel in another Beraisa. According to Beis Shamai, only Afar is eligible, and not Eifer ...

(c) ... because even if ashes are called 'Afar Sereifah', they are not called 'Afar' S'tam.

9) The Tana Kama of another Beraisa adds Shichor, K'chol and Nikras Pisulin to the list of things that are eligible for Kisuy ha'Dam, and 'Yesh Omrim, Zarnich' (arsenic). 'Shichor' is ground charcoal ...
1. ... 'K'chol' is - a material which produces a blue eye-paint.
2. ... 'Nikras Pisulin' is - flour dust from a mill.
(a) According to Rava, because Avraham said "ve'Anochi Afar va'Eifer" - his descendants merited Afar Parah and Afar Sotah.

(b) Rava omitted Afar Kisuy ha'Dam - because it is a Hechsher Mitzvah without any physical benefits (since the meat is permitted whether one performs Kisuy ha'Dam or not).

(c) Afar Parah renders a Tamei person Tahor - whereas Afar Sotah creates Shalom between a man and his wife.

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