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Chulin 91

CHULIN 91 - Dedicated for a Refu'ah Shelemah for Yehoshua Heschel ben Ayeleth. May the Talmud Torah d'Rabim sponsored in his honor protect him and gain him a full and speedy recovery.



(a) According to Rav Ashi, the Beraisa, which requires the Gidin to be burned, is not referring to the actual Gidin, but to the Shuman ha'Gid - the fat of the Gid, which is not included in the Isur Gid, but which Yisrael, who are holy, have taken upon themselves not to eat.

(b) It needs to be burned - because min ha'Torah, it is fit to eat.

(a) Similarly, Ravina explains the Beraisa by quoting Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel - who rules that although the Torah only forbids the long inner Gid (so called because it is on the inside of the thigh), the Chachamim added the short outer one to the Isur.

(b) In addition, the inner Gid runs beside the 'Kaf' (the round flesh that surrounds the thigh-bone), conforming with the Pasuk "al kaf ha'Yarech", whereas the outer one runs through it.

(c) The Beraisa is now referring - to the outer one, which requires burning for the same reason as the fat of the Gid, according to Rav Ashi's explanation.

(a) The Tana Kama in a Beraisa prescribes two sets of Malkos for someone who eats one k'Zayis from each Gid. According to Rebbi Yehudah - he receives only one.

(b) The problem with this is - Rebbi Yehudah's ruling that someone who strikes both of his Safek fathers one after the other is Patur from Malkos, because he holds 'Hasra'as Safek Lo Sh'mah Hasra'ah' (as we learned in 'Oso ve'es B'no'), in which case, he ought to be Patur from Malkos here too.

(c) We answer by citing another Beraisa, which discusses someone who leaves over from the Korban Pesach until the morning, and whom Rebbi Yehudah exempts from Malkos - because it is a La'av ha'Nitak la'Asei (as we explained there) ...

(d) ... implying that he would otherwise be Chayav - even though every Mosir is a Hasra'as Safek. And the Beraisa currently under discussion follows that version of Rebbi Yehudah's opinion.

(a) The Tana Kama of another Beraisa sentences someone who eats two Gidin of two thighs of two animals, to two two sets of Malkos; Rebbi Yehudah - to only one.

(b) From the fact that the Tana refers to two Gidin of two animals (rather than of the same animal), we extrapolate that - he must be speaking about two right thighs ...

(c) ... a proof that Rebbi Yehudah must be certain that Gid ha'Nasheh applies only to the right thigh and not to the left; otherwise he would not receive Malkos at all.

(d) He nevertheless receives only one set of Malkos, according to Rebbi Yehudah - because it speaks when there is only one k'Zayis between them, and as we have already learned, Rebbi Yehudah exempts someone who eats a Gid that is less than a k'Zayis from Malkos (even though it is a complete entity).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns that the Isur Gid ha'Yerech pertains specifically to the right Gid from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Asher al Kaf ha'Yarech" (Rava) - because of the 'Hey' in "ha'Yarech" - implying the more important of the two (since right generally takes preedence over left).
2. ... "be'He'avko Imo" (RebbiYehoshua ben Levi) - because this is how two people wrestle, as we explained earlier (but from Rebbi Yehudah's own S'vara).
(b) The Rabbanan learn from the 'Hey' of "Kaf ha'Yarech" - that the Torah is referring to the inner Gid, which, together with its roots and its sinews, runs the full length of the thigh (as opposed to the outer one, which is much shorter (as we explained earlier). One also sees it as soon as one cuts open the thigh.

(c) According to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni, Ya'akov placed the Angel of Eisav on his right hand side for protection, because the latter resembled a Nochri, and Mar said that if someone is joined by a Nochri on a journey - he should place him on his right so that, should he start up with him, he will more easily be able to defend himself.

(d) According to Rav Shmuel bar Acha in the name of Rava bar Ula - the Angel resembled a Talmid-Chacham, and he therefore placed him on his right hand - as a sign of respect ...

(e) ... in keeping with another statement of Mar, who said that someone who walks on the right of his Rebbe is a Boor (an ignoramus in matters of Derech Eretz).

(a) All of the above opinions come to expain Rebi Yehudah. According to the Rabbanan however - the Eisav's Angel came from the back and struck him on both Gidin.

(b) Based on a Pasuk (in connection with Hashem) "ve'Anan Avak Raglav", the Rabbanan learn from "be'He'avko Imo" (with a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi) - that their struggles brought up dust that reached the Kisei ha'Kavod (G-d's Throne of Glory).

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi explains the words "Gid ha'Nasheh" - to mean the Gid that jumped from its place and moved up.

(d) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina interprets the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Davar Shalach Hashem be'Ya'akov, Nafal be'Yisrael" to mean - that Hashem plagued Ya'akov on his Gid ha'Nasheh, but the Isur spread to the whole of Yisrael.
2. ... "u'Tevo'ach Tevach to mean - that Yosef told Menasheh to cut open the neck and show the brothers that the animal was Shechted properly.
3. ... ve'Hachein" to mean - that he should also remove the Gid ha'Nasheh in their presence.
(e) We can extrapolate from Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina's latter ruling (in connection with Gid ha'Nasheh) - that he subscribes to the opinion that Gid ha'Nasheh was already prohibited to Yisrael before Matan Torah (whilst they were still B'nei No'ach).
(a) Rebbi Elazar explains the Pasuk "Va'yivaser Ya'akov Levado" to mean - that Ya'akov went back across the river to fetch some small earthenware jars.

(b) We can learn from there how Tzadikim value everything that they own (even at the risk of their own safety) - because all their money and property is clean; nothing that they own is stolen.

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak learns from the fact that the Angel attacked Ya'akov and struggled with him until dawnbreak - that a Talmid-Chacham should not go out alone at night-time.

(b) Rebbi Aba bar Kahana learns it from the Pasuk in Rus, where Naomi informed Rus that, after winnowing the barley - Boaz would not go home, but would sleep in the barn (to avoid traveling alone at night-time).

(c) Rebbi Avahu learns it from the Pasuk in Vayeira "Va'yashkem Avraham ba'Boker Va'yachavosh es Chamoro", since it is apparently, shameful for a Talmid-Chacham to go out at night-time, even when he is not alone (see also Tosfos DH 'me'Hacha'), and the Rabbanan from Ya'akov, who sent Yosef to visit his brothers with the words "Lech Na *Re'ei* es Sh'lom Achecha ... " - which implies at a time when one can see (in the day).

(d) Rav brings a final proof from Ya'akov himself - whose limp, later in the Parshah, was cured by the sun, demonstrating, beyond any shadow of doubt, the advantage of traveling by day over night travel.




(a) Rebbi Akiva asked Raban Gamliel and Rebbi Yehoshua on the Pasuk "Va'yizrach Lo ha'Shemesh", whilst they were on their way to purchase an animal in the butchery of Im'um - for the wedding of Raban Gamliel's son.

(b) Rebbi Akiva asked them - why the Torah added the word "Lo", as if the sun set specifically for him, and not for the rest of the world.

(c) To answer the Kashya, Rebbi Yitzchak links that Pasuk with the Pasuk in the previous Parshah "Va'yeitzei Ya'akov ... Va'yifga ba'Makom" - which teaches us that the amount of time that the sun set prematurely for Ya'akov's benefit, when he first went to Charan (as we will now explain), it rose for him prematurely on his return journey (as we already explained).

(a) In the Pasuk "Vayeitzei Ya'akov ... Ve'yeilech Charanah ... Va'yifga ba'Makom" - "ba'Makom" refers to the Makom ha'Mikdash).

(b) And Rebbi Yitzchak explains the Pasuk to mean - that when Ya'akov arrived in Charan, he remembered that he had failed to Daven in the location where his fathers had Davened, so he decided to return. At that moment, he 'met' the Makom ha'Mikdash (i.e. he had Kefitzas ha'Derech).

(c) "Vayifga ba'Makom" also means - that he Davened there.

(d) The sun set prematurely - when, as he prepared to return to Charan, Hashem said 'Shall this Tzadik who has come to My guest-house pass by without staying overnight?'

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak reconciles the Pasuk there "Va'yikach me'Avnei ha'Makom" (implying that he took a number of stones) with the Pasuk "Va'yikach es ha'Even (singular) Asher Sam me'Ra'ashosav" - by explaining that he actually took a number of stones to place around his head as a protection against wild animals, but when each stone wanted Ya'akov to place his head on it, Hashem performed a miracle and turned them all into one stone.

(b) If, as the Beraisa proves from a Pasuk in Daniel, one angel is two thousand Parsah wide - the width of the ladder about which Ya'akov dreamt must have been eight thousand Parsah, since the Pasuk writes that angels were going up and down simultaneously.

(c) According to another Beraisa (which disagrees with the previous one [see Tosfos DH 'Olin'), the significance of ...

1. ... "Olim ve'Yordim Bo" is - that the angels first went up to look at the image of Adam (one of the four creatures that support Hashem's Throne, and which resembles Ya'akov), and then descended to where he lay asleep in order to do him harm.
2. ... "ve'Hinei Hashem Nitzav Alav" is - that Hashem stood over Him to protect him.
(d) The angels wanted to harm Ya'akov - out of jealousy.

(e) Resh Lakish commented on this incident - that it would have been impossible to say such a thing, if the Pasuk had not done so, for it can be compared to a man waving a fan to keep his son cool (see also Agados Maharsha).

(a) When Hahem said 'ha'Aretz Asher Atah Shochev Alehah, Lecha Etnenah u'le'Zar'echa" - Ya'akov may have been lying on only four Amos of space. However, Hashem folded the whole of Eretz Yisrael under him at that moment ...

(b) ... which He did - to demonstrate that it would be as easy to capture as four Amos (provided they did not sin).

(c) Ya'akov's response to the angel's request to let him go, because dawn-break had arrived was - to ask the angel whether he was a thief or a kidnapper, who was afraid of getting caught by day ...

(d) ... to which the angel replied that he was an angel, whose first opportunity to sing Shirah since he had been created, had arrived.

(a) This is a proof for Rav Chananel Amar Rav, who said that Hashem creates three groups of angels each day - one of which sings 'Kadosh', the other 'Kadosh and the third 'Kadosh Hashem Tzevakos'.

(b) We query this however, from a Beraisa, which describes the superiority of Yisrael over the angels. Some angels sing Shirah once a day, others once a week and yet others once a year, whilst the three remaining groups sing Shirah - once every seven years, once in a Yovel and once in a lifetime (respectively).

(c) Yisrael are superior to the angels ...

1. ... in this regard - in that they (Yisrael) may sing Shirah whenever they please. 2. ... regarding priorities - in that the angels are not allowed to sing Shirah in Heaven until Yisrael have sung it on earth.
(d) The other superior trait that Yisrael enjoy regarding the wording of their 'Shirah' is - that they may mention Hashem's Name after two words (i.e. after "Sh'ma Yisrael"), whereas the angels may only mention it after three (i.e. after "Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh").
(a) The Kashya on Rav Chananel Amar Rav from the Beraisa is - from the Beraisa's final point, bearing in mind, that according to him, the last mentioned group of angels actually mention Hashem's Name after one word.

(b) We therefore amend Rav's statement to read - that one group says 'Kadosh', one 'Kadosh, Kadosh', and the third group 'Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh Hashem Tzevakos'.

(c) The Kashya on the Beraisa from 'Baruch' - is that there they mention Hashem's Name after only two words?

(d) One answer is that it is the Ofanim who sing 'Baruch', whereas we are referring to the Serafim (see Tosfos DH 'Baruch'). Alternatively - having already mentioned Hashem's Name after 'Kadosh ... ', it no longer matters when they mention it.

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